ADAPTATION OF THE MEANING IN LIFE QUESTIONNAIRE IN LATVIAN
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The aim of the present study was adapting the Meaning in Life Questionnaire (MLQ) in Latvian and testing its validity. The MLQ is a compact ten-item-long questionnaire operationally defining the construct of meaning in life as a search for meaning and the sense of its presence. The existential and positive psychology approaches emphasize the significance of these components of meaning in life for understanding effective functioning. The original MLQ was translated to Latvian and then back to English. After a comparison of texts, psychometric properties of the improved Latvian version were tested. Participants of the study were 406 people, ranged in age from 18 to 49 (66% females). University students formed the most part of the participants (88%). The Satisfaction with Life Scale and the Individual Future Orientation Scale were applied for testing the convergent validity of the MLQ. The results of the exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses supported the two-factor structure of the Latvian version of the MLQ and an acceptable fit of the model to data. Both scales also demonstrated good internal consistency. An absence of a significant relationship between the presence of meaning and search for it forms a topic for deeper qualitative and quantitative investigations. As expected, the presence of meaning in life associated positively with satisfaction with life and future orientation. The search for meaning linked positively to future orientation and not associated with life satisfaction. The presence of meaning in life and satisfaction with life demonstrated weak positive correlations with age. However, the linearity of this relationship should be tested in older adults. The search for meaning was not related to age. There were no significant gender differences in the presence or search for meaning in life. As a result of adaptation, the Latvian version of the MLQ can be applied in studies on meaning in life, views of the future, and different aspects of well-being.
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