„Białe anioły z skrzydłami jasnemi” (konstelacja parafraz)
„White angels with bright wings” (constellation of paraphrases)
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The paper is a review of the functions of the citation from the novel of Narcyza Żmichowska "Poganka" [The Pagan] (1846): “I was once told that here on earth exist angels with bright wings”. This citation and the figure of an angel with bright wings express a romantic model of love and define a social role of a woman as a caregiver and man’s helper. The most famous use of this paraphrase of the citation appears in the novel "Lalka" [Doll] (1890) by Bolesław Prus. Literary historians were certain that Prus refered directly to Poganka. In the article the author demonstrated that this fragment from Poganka had already functioned in the publishing market as a separate poem under the title "Miłość do kobiety" [Love to a Woman] since 1857. Up until the publishing of "Lalka" it was published several times in Warsaw and Lviv. It also became a basis for Aleksander Michaux’s paraphrase (pen name of Michaux) whom Prus knew. The paraphrasis of Miron had been published several times before "Lalka" came into being. In the light of these findings the thesis on "Poganka’s" exclusivity as the basis for the citation in "Lalka" cannot be maintained. The second part of the article analyses the role of the citation and other paraphrases (extensive rhyming paraphrase by Aleksander Kraushar) in literary texts which were created at the same time as "Lalka" or after its publishing. The intertexts to Żmichowska’s work can be found in the prose of Hajota (Helena Pajzderska), Wacław Sieroszewski, Janina (Kazimiera Stachowiczowa), Bronisław Grabowski and others. A certain regularity was discovered: the modification of the citation (paraphrase) is connected with the attitude of writers critical towards the romantic model and wtih democratic-reformatory views. The citations that remained unchanged and which sustained the standing of the Church were quoted by publicists and authors of educational treaties written in conservative spirit.
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