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Towards the end of the 1920s quantum theory, which was just developing, described particles and antiparticles in an asymmetric way. According to earlier Dirac’s suggestions, positive electric charge was attributed to particles and negative electric charge to antiparticles. In 1933 Majorana wrote a work on symmetric quanting of particles and antiparticles of half-spin. While dealing with this problem Majorana introduced completely neutral particles being their own antiparticles. Presently, in quantum filed theory, another way of symmetric description of matter and antimatter is accepted. It is different from the one proposed by Majorana. Yet, the concept of complete neutral objects has remained and is very popular today. It seems that everything lead to the conclusion that neutrinos are Majorana particles. The paper explains why Majorana wanted to solve this problem, how it happened that when he was introducing the symmetric description of matter, neutral particles occurred. It is also presented what has happened with Majorana’s idea since then, and what is the present role of neutral particles introduced by him.
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