2020 | 2(15) | 70-90
Article title

Ostatni krzyżowcy – brytyjskie działania militarne w sandżaku Jerozolimy w 1917 r. i ich wybrane aspekty propagandowe

Title variants
The Last Crusaders – British military operations in the Jerusalem Sanjak in 1917 and selected aspects of propaganda
Languages of publication
Wielka Wojna lat 1914–1918 postrzegana jest dziś głównie jako traumatyczne doświadczenie polityczne i militarne w skali uniwersalnej, dające początek wielkim przemianom w XX w. Powstające wówczas narracje były także wielokrotnie preparowane – w większym lub mniejszym stopniu – przez dziennikarzy, cenzorów, polityków i wojskowych. Sprzyjało to prowadzeniu skutecznej propagandy politycznej, jakże koniecznej w obliczu rozpoczętej latem 1914 r. wojny. Forsowana wówczas propaganda przybierała najrozmaitsze formy, często sięgające po jednoznacznie odbieraną symbolikę z pogranicza wojskowości i religii. Szczególnie widoczne stało się to w trakcie kampanii palestyńskiej gen. Edmunda Allenby'ego i w kontekście roli Świętego Miasta – Jerozolimy.
Today the Great War of 1914–1918 is seen – mainly – as a politically and militarily traumatic experience on a universal scale, which gave rise to great changes in the 20th century. Less often it is perceived as an individual, traumatizing or civic experience. We are not able - as confirmed not only by historians or sociologists but also psychologists – to "comprehend" the overall view of the reality of that time. We try to recreate it for better or worse based on various historical sources, and these largely reflected the personal attitude to events or its propaganda view. They were also prepared – in a larger or smaller way – by journalists, censors, politicians and military personnel. In the years preceding the outbreak of the Great War, many civilization achievements of the era were tested and introduced on a mass scale, such as modern media or fine arts in the services of power, nationalism skilfully controlled through the media. The turn of the twentieth century was an era of the mass press, and thus, faster transmission of transmitted information. This was conducive to the conduct of effective political propaganda – all the more necessary in the face of the Great War. It also took various forms. Often used were the explicitly associated symbols remaining at the interface between the military and religion. This became particularly evident during the Palestinian Campaign of Sir General Edmund Allenby.
Physical description
  • Źródła niepublikowane
  • National Archive London (NA)
  • CAB/23/2, CO 1069/743, PRO 395/237, FO/395/152, HO/139/19/78, FO/395/139, FO371/3383
  • Imperial War Museum London (IWM)
  • Film and Video Archive, IWM 145.
  • Źródła publikowane
  • Parliamentary Debates, House of Commons, Fifth Series, vol. 77.
  • Ministry of Information. HC Deb 5 August 1918, vol 109.
  • Falls C., Military Operations Egypt and Palestine, vol. 1, London 1930.
  • Gullett H.S., Official History of Australia in the War of 1914-18 vol. VII, Sinai and Palestine, Sydney 1935.
  • Hankey M., The Supreme Command 1914–1918, vol. 2, London 1961.
  • Pamiętniki i wspomnienia
  • Gilbert V., The Romance of the Last Crusade, London 1928.
  • Hendrick B.J., The Life and Letters of Walter H. Page, t. III, Heinemann 1925.
  • Lloyd George D., War Memoirs of Lloyd George, London 1936.
  • Lawrence T.E., Seven Pillars of Wisdom, Wordsworth 1997.
  • Steed W., Through Thirty Years, London 1924.
  • Stuart C., Secrets of Crewe House: The Story of a Famous Campaign, London 1929.
  • Prasa
  • „The Advertiser” Wednesday, grudzień 1917.
  • „Daily Mail”, grudzień 1917.
  • „Daily Sketch”, grudzień 1917.
  • „The Palestine News" (Jerusalem), marzec 1918.
  • „The Times”, grudzień 1917.
  • „New York Tribune”, grudzień 1917.
  • Opracowania
  • Bruce A., 2002, The Last Crusade, London.
  • Büssow J., 2011, Hamidian Palestine: Politics and Society in the District of Jerusalem 1872–1908, Leiden.
  • Canaan T., 1930, Two Documents on the Surrender of Jerusalem, „The Journal of the Palestine Oriental Society” 10, no. 1.
  • Dawisha A., 2005, Arab Nationalism in the Twentieth Century: From Triumph to Despair, Princeton.
  • Friedman I., 2000, Palestine: A Twice-Promised Land? Vol. 1: [w:] The British, the Arabs, and Zionism, 1915–-1920, New Brunswick.
  • Fromkin D., 2009, A Peace to End All Peace: The Fall of the Ottoman Empire and the Creation of the Modern Middle East, New York 2009.
  • Gosling L., 2008, Brushes and Bayonets: Cartoons, Sketches and Paintings of World War I, London.
  • Grayzel S.R., 2012, At Home and under Fire: Air Raids and Culture in Britain from the Great War to the Blitz, New York.
  • Hillenbrand C., 1999, The Crusades: Islamic Perspectives, Edinburgh.
  • Lawrence J., 1993, Imperial Warrior. The Life and Times of Field Marshal Viscount Allenby 1861–1936, London.
  • Marquess of Anglesey, 1997, A History of British Cavalry, vol. VIII, London.
  • Meyer K.E., Brysac Sh.B., 2008, Kingmakers. The Invention of the Modern Middle East, New York.
  • Messinger G.S., 1992, British Propaganda and the State in the First World War, Manchester.
  • Millman B., 2000, Managing Domestic Dissent in First World War Britain, London.
  • Sanders M.L., Taylor Ph.M., 1982, British Propaganda during the First World War 1914–1918, London.
  • Thompson J., 2007, Pictorial Lies’? — Posters and Politics in Britain c. 1880–1914, „Past & Present”, vol. 197, Is. 1, November.
  • Strony internetowe
Document Type
Publication order reference
YADDA identifier
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