СЕРЕДНЬОВІЧНА І КЛАСИЧНА УНІВЕРСИТЕТСЬКА ТРАДИЦІЯ НІМЕЧЧИНИ
The medieval and classical university tradition in Germany.
Languages of publication
Two historical periods are especially crucial for the German university tradition: the European universities medieval founding and neohumanistic renewal and reform of university education system in Prussia in the early nineteenth century. German universities historical roots reach the common European tradition of the medieval universities, which appeared in the XII century in Bologna and Paris. These «universitatis magistrorum et scholarium», the corporate units of those, who teach and those who learn (teachers and students) were given Pope and Kaiser privileges. They had the right, independently to conduct their internal affairs, to pass and to take examinations and to award academic degrees with extra-regional recognition. The Universities were not professional or specialized agencies, but covered, all that time, fields of science. The neohumanistic university reform, which is the starting point of establishing the Berlin University (1809–1810), belongs to the second period, which is characterized by accelerated development of German universities based on the classical tradition. The neohumanistic educational tradition of the individual personality development through the self-study and “the university idea”, which is derived from the philosophical doctrine of German idealism (Kant, Fichte, Hegel, Schelling), has maintained its appeal even today. The main points of Humboldt concept of the university were: far achieved public universities internal autonomy, their self government through Heads of Departments (ordinarii), the main emphasis on free trials, which should be directly responsible to the public interest, and direct combination of the university preparation academic and professional components (learning process – practice as a specialty). This is precisely why, postulates were answered “education freedom“ and “the research unity and teaching process”. According to the principle “education through science” was built all didactic system, that had to encourage student to independent thinking and to develop and his personal qualities, that are required to perform perfectly certain functions for professional and social sense.
Publication order reference