PL EN


2014 | 2 | 37-48
Article title

Cmentarz wojenny w Łukowie Łapiguzie

Content
Title variants
EN
Military cemetery in Łuków Łapiguz
Languages of publication
PL
Abstracts
EN
The existing military cemetery in Łuków Łapiguz has been operating at least since August 1914. In these times it served as the place of burial of the soldiers died in the field hospital located at the area of the Russian barracks in Łapiguz. Ensuring proper interment to the soldiers responded to the postulates of the Alexander Committee for the Wounded operating in St. Petersburg, recommending burials in a separated location and commemorated with a cross or monument. At the end of August 1915, under the pressure of the summer offensive of the Central Powers, the Russian army retreated towards east outside the territory of the Kingdom of Poland. In September 1915, the military operations in the Vistula and Bug Rivers basin were discontinued. That is when the barracks in Łapiguz were seized over by the German garrison. The areas under the German occupation were divided into military governments, among others with the seat in Łuków, subordinate to the General Government in Warsaw. The tasks of the German Imperial Military Government in Łuków included care of the graves of the fallen soldiers at the subordinated territory of two Poviats: Łuków and Garwolin. In 1917, the reorganization plan for cemetery in Łuków Łapiguz was completed. The cemetery established by the Russians was transformed from the place of burial into the memorial. The cemetery was designed along the N-S axis marked out as the main alley leading from the representational entrance to the chapel closing the perspective of the axis. Two transversal alleys divided the cemetery into smaller sections: in the southern part – the sections with graves, sections with stone monuments commemorating the soldiers of the Russian Army (towards west) and German and Austro-Hungarian army (towards east) in the centre, and the wooden, single-tower chapel in the north. On 11 November, 1918 the German garrison in Łuków Łapiguz was disarmed by the district contingent of the Polish Military Organization. Upon incorporating the PMO contingents into the Polish army, the garrison service was performed by the company, which, on May 1919, was incorporated into the organized reserve battalion of the 22th Siedlce infantry regiment. The other burials at the cemetery took place during the operations of the 1920 Polish-Soviet War. During the Second Polish Republic, the cemetery was governed by the Polish military authorities: Office for War Graves Protection at the General District Command followed by the War Graves Department at the District Public Works Directorate at the Lubelskie Voivodeship Office after 1922. According to the official documents, the war cemetery in Łuków Łapiguz was one of the largest cemeteries at the territory of the Lubelskie Voivodeship. Following data of the 1920s registers, the number of burials in the individual and mass graves was as follows: 208 soldiers of the Austrian army, 1009 – Russian, 36 – German and 548 not classified soldiers, i.e. 1801 soldiers in total. The action of war cemeteries consolidation has been carried out on successive basis until 1933. The intention behind maintenance of the cemetery in Łuków Łapiguz was its use as mass cemetery. Renovation works, including repair of the fencing made of squared wood, making grave symbols and raising 919 graves for the individual and mass burials, have been planned. The works were performed until spring 1939. The final period of the cemetery’s operation dates back to 1939-1944 and covers the burials of the 3rd Reich army soldiers. The wooden chapel burnt in 1972. No stone monuments survived. However, an original wooden grave monument in a minaret form commemorating the Muslim soldiers is among the very few survivors. It was relocated from the cemetery to the District Museum in Lublin and to the Open Air Village Museum in Lublin on later date. Earth graves have disappeared in time. It was commonly believed that the cemetery held fewer bodies than counted down in the statistics of the inter-war period. In 1997, the bodies of the WWII German soldiers were exhumed. In 2014, the cemetery was entered into the list of monuments of the Lubelskie Voivodeship. The proceedings included an archive inquiry, which resulted in discovering, among others, the cemetery plan and numerical data from the inter-war period registers.
Year
Issue
2
Pages
37-48
Physical description
Dates
published
2014
Contributors
  • Wojewódzki Urząd Ochrony Zabytków w Lublinie, historyk sztuki, absolwentka Katolickiego Uniwersytetu Lubelskiego
References
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  • Schubert J., Pochówki żołnierskie w tradycji historycznej do czasów I wojny światowej. Powstanie cmentarzy wojskowych, „Czasopismo Techniczne” 2011, z. 16, s. 173-200, http://suw.biblos.pk.edu.pl/resources/i5/i3/i9/i5/r5395/SchubertJ_Pochowki-Zolnierskie.pdf
  • Schubert J., Służby grobownicze armii austro-węgierskiej, niemieckiej i rosyjskiej w czasie I wojny światowej (1915-1918), „Czasopismo Techniczne” 2011, z. 16, s. 200-224, https://suw.biblos.pk.edu.pl/resources/i5/i3/i9/i6/r5396/Schubert_SluzbyGrobownicze.pdf
  • Szydłowski T., Ruiny Polski. Opis szkód wyrządzonych przez wojnę w dziedzinie zabytków sztuki na ziemiach Małopolski i Rusi Czerwonej, Warszawa-Lublin-Łódź-Kraków 1919.
  • Wiercieński H., Opis statystyczny guberni lubelskiej, Warszawa 1901.
  • Archiwum Państwowe w Lublinie: Cesarsko-Niemieckie Wojskowe Gubernatorstwo w Łukowie [1915-1918], Vierteljahres-Bericht des Kaiserlich Deutschen Militärgouvernements Łuków für die Zeit von 26 März bis 28 September 1918, sygn. 64.
  • Archiwum Państwowe w Lublinie: Urząd Wojewódzki Lubelski [1919-1939], Wydział Komunikacyjno-Budowlany, Korespondencja ogólna dotycząca grobownictwa wojennego (1923), sygn. 3191; Ogólny plan robót w zakresie grobownictwa wojennego na terenie województwa lubelskiego (1932-1934), sygn. 3233; Plany cmentarzy wojennych na terenie województwa lubelskiego, b.d., sygn. 3236; Stan i remont cmentarzy wojennych (1937-1939), sygn. 3230; Wykazy cmentarzy i mogił wojennych województwa lubelskiego b.d., sygn. 3203.
  • Archiwum Państwowe w Lublinie: Obwieszczenie z 27 kwietnia 1916 r. w sprawie ustanowienia nowej formy małego wspólnego herbu, przeznaczonego dla wspólnych instytucji Monarchii austro-węgierskiej, Dziennik Ustaw państwa dla królestw i krajów w Radzie Państwa reprezentowanych, 1916, nr 125.
  • Wojewódzki Urząd Ochrony Zabytków w Lublinie: Korespondencja w sprawie wpisu cmentarza wojennego w Łukowie Łapiguzie do rejestru zabytków.
  • Wojewódzki Urząd Ochrony Zabytków w Lublinie: Rejestr zabytków nieruchomych województwa lubelskiego, Decyzja Lubelskiego Wojewódzkiego Konserwatora Zabytków, znak: KD.5140.3.1.2014, z 15 stycznia 2014 r.
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Document Type
Publication order reference
Identifiers
ISSN
0029-8247
YADDA identifier
bwmeta1.element.desklight-ceb82c2e-3304-4c9f-b79c-665894ef6de9
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