Karta Wenecka i restaurowanie zabytków na Węgrzech
THE CHARTER VENICE AND RESTORATION OF MONUMENTS IN HUNGARY
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The author starts his article with the explanation o f . historical significance of the Charter of Venice which was passed in 1964. He also describes some possibilities of its application in reconstruction of Hungerian monuments. As far as recoinstruction of historical buildings in concerner, Hungerian restorers and architects tend to adjut them to the needs of modern life. Their primary principle is to arrange luxurious apartments, which is the only way to find lodgers who will respect their historical character. The author gives some examples of such adaptation of historical houses in Sopron and Budapest. He also discusses various ways of exploitation of monuments of other kinds (such as churches, castles and palaces) in Hungary. Then he deals with monuments which have suffered partial destruction. In such cases it is very important for conservators to establish to what extent reconstruction can be done. The example which may be quoted here is the bastion of the Diósgyor castle, where for the reconstruction of isome time — worn fragment ferro — concrete has been used to mark the border line of the original walls. Gun hatches have also been made in this material. Now they enable to see the construction’s interior, to define the degree of destruction and to recognize technics and materials used for the reconstruction purpose. In other cases (e.g. in the Romanesque church in Varaszó) bricks and original stone material which came from derudition of the outbuilding have been used for reconstruction. Artificial stone is also employed to supplement missing parts (e.g. in the Simontornya castle). The author presents achievements of Hungerian conservators in the field of restoration of ruins, e.g. Roman amphitheaters or temples and medieval castles and palaces. Iu such cases the anastylosis method in applicable, e.g. in the restoration of the Esztergom castle or the ruins of the Visegrâd palace where time — worn fragments af vaults and w alls have been supplemented with modern material and original stone details have been put in their primary places. Then the author proceeds to discuss the restoration works at the Royal Castle in Buda. They have been performed in two ways: — by means of the anastylosis method in case of buildings occupying an opôn area, — on the basis of hypothetic data and annalogies as far as reconstruction of fortifications in concerned. Hungerian medieval monuments of greatest importance can be examined only by means of the excavatory method. This has resulted in the necessity to work out the way of reconstructing these monuments. Therefore the model of an object is made on the basis of its preserved parts and possibly — some written sources. Then places for some fragments recovered in the course of archeological investigations are found out. Finally, on the grounds of this discovery the object is reconstructed through supplement of missing elements with artificial material. Reconstructions of buildings composed of various elements which can be derived from various ages is the other problem that is being solved by Hungerian conservators. In this case the principle of the eldest relicts’ exposition is accepted (e.g. Gothico-Baroque tenement-houses of Sopron). In frequently happens, however, that a structure was remodeled in the 19th century in the course of present restoration the alternations are taken into account as manifestations of the epoch. At the end of the article the author postulates the necessity to begin international exchange of opinions on the subject of the idea and priciples of monuments’ preservation in various countries.
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