Barokowa polichromia na fasadzie kamienicy przy ul. Grodzkiej nr 1 w Lublinie
A POLYCHROMED BAROQUE DECORATION ON THE FACADE OF THE DWELLING HOUSE IN 1 GRODZKA STREET, LUBLIN
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Investigations of the polychrome paintings on the façade have been conduced according to general schedule of investigations for the Old Town district in Lublin adopted by the local Branch of the State-owned Ateliers for Conservation of Cultural Property. The preliminarily defined range of works comprised only the stratygraphic examinations of colours present in plasters with which is covered the northern portion of façade on the side of Grodzka Street at the level of the first storey. Such confinement of programme was a consequence of tendency to resign of examination of polychromed façade which is entirely deprived of any architectural detail. However, the preliminary stratygraphic examinations have already pointed to existence of a greater number of unevenly distributed paint layers. Thus, after the determining the extent to which were reaching the original polychromed layers and after examination of the later superimposed layers basing on findings from stratygraphic examinations a number of superficial scrapings has been carried out resulting in revealing of compositional fragments of the original painted decoration. The decoration proper is composed of painted framings of windows existing in the first and second stories that represent the illusively painted architectural details. Quite exceptionally rich as to their forms are painted crownings of windows on the first storey which are presented in the form of profiled cornice plates supported by two consoles having the shape of the outwardly evolving volutes. The surfaces of cornice plates and the volutes themselves are outlined with incised groovings accentuating their contours. As the background for the whole pictorial composition a layer of pink-coloured paint was used, covering the entire surfaco of façade at the level of the first and second stories. The cornice plates and volutes have originally been painted with two paint layers the combination of which produced a cream-grey shade. The illusiveness of the paintings that were aimed at imitating of architectural details is stressed by application of shadings on the northern edges of framings. Examination of framings in windows in the second storey made it possible to reconstruct the wray in which the painted decoration of the window sill plate was executed. It is composed of two symmetrically placed consoles depicted in the form of the two outwardly evolving volutes. Both identity of line drawings and of colour composition of the revealed polychromy in the two extreme portions of façade under investigation made it also possible to state that with the painted decoration were comprised all windows existing in the first and second stories. From old records it could be learned that the original façade was in 1670 provided with buttresses which the fact can quite easily and properly be connected with the then carried out superstruction of the second storey which has also been confirmed as a result of architectural examinations. In the course of investigations it has been found that the polychrome paintings were executed immediately after the erection of buttresses supporting the façade. Taking into account the possibility that erection of buttresses led to some delay in execution of painted decoration it can hipotetically be assumed that it was produced in the 1670’s. Until recently this façade furnishes the only example of the seventeenth- century painted decoration in a dwelling house within the Old Town district of Lublin. Both its historical and artistic values are fully justifying the need to entirely reveal and restore the portions that have survived to our days and to make the integrating supplementations. However, the full rehabilitation of the original decoration of the façade in question may lead to some conflict with the general conception that was adopted and carried out in 1954 during rehabilitation of Lublin’s Old Town. Namely, its chief assumption consisted in emphasising the importance of the Market Square as the centre of the Old Town’s urbanist composition through differentiating the collours of the market frontages and those in the access streets. The simple, generally grey painted and nearly monochromatic decoration of houses in Grodzka Street has been contrasted with richly adorned façades forming the frontages of Market Square. Discoveries made in the façade under discussion have led to serious doubts as to the rightness of the above solution and are thus forcing the preparation of a new, based on results of detailed investigations and historically reasoned colour patterns for dwelling houses in the Old Town district.
- Z. Me d w e c k a , Zastosowanie łatwo rozpuszczalnej błony z tworzywa sztucznego przy zdejmowaniu i przenoszeniu malowidła ściennego na pobiale na nowe podłoże, Biblioteka Muzealnictwa i Ochrony Zabytkow, ser. B, t. XI, 1965, ss. 205—232.
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