2013 | 22/2 | 73-86
Article title

Kiswahili Loanwords in the English Language of Kenya within a Theoretical Framework

Title variants
Languages of publication
The sociolinguistic context of prolonged language contact in contemporary Kenya should lead to a certain amount of influence of the languages on one another, e.g. through loanwords. The main aim of the present paper was to examine English in Kenya to show what kind of words are borrowed from African languages and their analysis within the framework of the borrowing theories formulated in Tappolet (1913–16), Haugen (1950), Weinreich (1953), Dardano – Trifone (1995), Hock – Joseph (1996), Krefeld (1999) and McColl-Millar (2007). The data for this study come from the International corpus of English for East Africa (ICE-EA).
  • International corpus of English, East African component (ICE-EA). 2002. Available for download www.
  • Oxford English dictionary online. 2010. Available (Dates of access October 2010 – January 2012)
  • The World Language Documentation Centre. Swahili dictionary. (1995–2010). Available: (Dates of access October 2010–January 2012)
  • Tshwanedje. Software and Language Services. Swahili dictionary. (2004–2011). Available (Dates of access October 2010–January 2012)
  • Blank, Andreas, and Peter Koch (eds.). 1999. Historical semantics and cognition. Berlin: Mouton de Gruyter.
  • Budohoska, Natalia. 2010. “Language as a means of expressing identity in a multilingual reality: the place of English in Kenya today”. Anglica 20: 37–52.
  • Crystal, David. 2006. “English worldwide”. In: Richard Hogg – David Denison (eds.), 420–439.
  • Dardano, Maurizio, and Pietro Trifone. 1995. Grammatica italiana con nozioni di linguistica. (3rd ed.), Bologna: Zanichelli.
  • Field, Fredric W. 2002. Linguistic borrowing in bilingual contexts. Philadelphia: John Benjamins Publishing Co.
  • Githiora, Chege. 2008. “Kenya: language and the search for a coherent national identity”. In: Andrew Simpson (ed.), 235–251.
  • Görlach, Manfred. 1994. “A usage dictionary of Anglicisms in selected European languages”. International Journal of Lexicography 7: 223–246.
  • Görlach, Manfred. 2004. “Introduction”. In: Manfred Go¨rlach (ed.), 1–12.
  • Görlach, Manfred (ed.). 2004. English in Europe. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
  • Haugen, Einar. 1950. “The analysis of linguistic borrowing”. Language 26: 210–231.
  • Hock, Hans Henrich, and Brian D. Joseph. 1996. Language history, language change, and language relationship: an introduction to historical and comparative linguistics. Berlin & New York: Mouton de Gruyter.
  • Hogg, Richard, and David Denison (eds.). 2006. A history of the English language. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
  • Krefeld, Thomas. 1999. “Cognitive ease and lexical borrowing: the recategorization of body parts in Romance”. In: Andreas Blank, and Peter Koch (eds.), 259–278.
  • McColl-Millar, Robert. 2007. Trask’s historical linguistics. (2nd ed.). London: Hodder Arnold.
  • Pogatscher, Alois. 1888. Zur Lautlehre der griechischen, lateinischen und romanischen Lehnworte im Altenglischen. Strasbourg: Trübner.
  • Pyles, Thomas. 1943. “The pronunciation of Latin learned loan words and foreign words in Old English”. Modern Language Association 58: 891–910.
  • Simpson, Andrew (ed.). 2008. Language and national identity in Africa. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
  • Tappolet, Ernst. 1913–1916. Die alemannischen lehnwörter in der französischen Schweiz: kulturhistorisch linguistische untersuchung. Vol. 1. Strasbourg: Trübner.
  • Thomson, Sarah. 2001. Language contact – an introduction. Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press.
  • Weinreich, Uriel. 1953. Languages in contact: findings and problems. The Hague: Mouton de Gruyter.
Document Type
Publication order reference
YADDA identifier
JavaScript is turned off in your web browser. Turn it on to take full advantage of this site, then refresh the page.