Insects constitute as much as 75% of all described species of the world’s fauna. In the animal kingdom they play a dominant role. To certain extent it was reflected in folk medicine using zoonotic drugs. The purpose of the work is to determine, what kinds of insects were used the time of Poland’s partitions and in the 2nd Polish Republic. Insects were used most often in such diseases, as: rheumatoid arthritis, paralysis, circulatory insufficiency and resulting oedemas, malaria, erysipelas, rabies, viper bites, trachoma, jaundice, skin diseases, cuts, hysteria. Close to 20 insect families were applied in folk medicine, although not all of the species can be counted, the more so as they were not always distinguished by the people of old Polish territories – both peasants and the researchers of their culture. Most often beetles and hymenopteras were used, less often – butterflies. There was widespread belief connected with this therapy, i.e. belief in magical meaning of numbers, especially number 3 and its multiple.