The rise of the Bolsheviks to power in Russia was accompanied by a complete overhaul of the political system as well as the entire legal system. Those changes ultimately became a potent research topic for Polish lawyers of the Second Polish Republic. Their interests ranged from the theoretical to the practical. This article attempts to describe the ruminations of Polish legal scholars concerned with the evolution of the civil law. In their work, they remarked on the departure from previous solutions, and implementation of new principles, based upon the Marxist ideology. One of the examples of such changes in the Soviet civil law was the shift of emphasis from the rights of the individual to the obligations towards the state.