Female sexual function in users of combined oral and traditional contraceptive methods
Languages of publication
Background. Combined oral contraceptive pills containing ethinyl estradiol and levonorgestrel are the most common contraceptives that are used by women of the reproductive age. Moreover, sexual function is linked to sexual hormones. Objectives. The aim of this study was to evaluate the sexual function of hormonal contraceptive (OCP) and non-hormonal contraceptive (traditional or withdrawal) methods in Iranian reproductive-age women referred to healthcare centers. Material and methods. This was a cross-sectional study on 206 married women of the reproductive age (18–45). Ninety-six women used OCP to prevent pregnancy, and 110 women did not use any contraceptives, instead using a traditional (withdrawal) method for at least 6 months before the study. Data on sexual function was collected via the Female Sexual Function Index (FSFI) questionnaire. The independent t-test was used for statistical purposes. Results. The results showed that there were no significant differences in all domains of sexual function in the two groups, except in the area of sexual arousal (3.87 in OCP users and 4.14 in withdrawal user methods) (p < 0.05). There was an association between the arousal domain and oral contraceptive use, but there was no relation between OCP and other domains of sexual function. Conclusions. The combined oral and withdrawal contraceptive methods have no impact on sexual function, except in the area of sexual arousal.
- Stephenson KR, Meston CM. The conditional importance of sex: exploring the association between sexual well-being and life satisfaction.J Sex Marital Ther 2015; 41(1): 25–38.
- Cayan S, Yaman O, Orhan I, et al. Prevalence of sexual dysfunction and urinary incontinence and associated risk factors in Turkish women. EBCOG 2016; 203: 303–308.
- Chen CH, Lin YC, Chiu LH, et al. Female sexual dysfunction: definition, classification, and debates. Taiwan J Obstet Gynecol 2013; 52(1):3–7.
- Graziottin A, Serafini A, Palacios S. Aetiology, diagnostic algorithms and prognosis of female sexual dysfunction. Maturitas 2009; 63(2):128–134.
- Nappi RE, Albani F, Vaccaro P, et al. Use of the Italian translation of the Female Sexual Function Index (FSFI) in routine gynecological practice. Gynecol Endocrinol 2008; 24(4): 214–219.
- Melmed S, Polonsky KS, Larsen PR, et al. Williams textbook of endocrinology. 13th ed. Elsevier Health Sciences; 2015.
- Jha S, Thakar R. Female sexual dysfunction. Eur J Obstet Gynecol Reprod Biol 2010; 153(2): 117–123.
- Kalmbach DA, Ciesla JA, Janata JW, et al. The validation of the female sexual function index, male sexual function index, and profile of
- Santoro N, Worsley R, Miller KK, et al. Role of estrogens and estrogen-like compounds in female sexual function and dysfunction. J Sex Med 2016; 13(3): 305–316.
- Davis SR, Worsley R, Miller KK, et al. Androgens and female sexual function and dysfunction findings from the Fourth International Consultation on Sexual Medicine. J Sex Med 2016; 13(2): 168–178.
- Morroni C, Heartwell S, Edwards S, et al. The impact of oral contraceptive initiation of young women’s condom use in 3 American cities:missed opportunities for intervention. PLoS ONE 2014; 9(7): e101804.
- Tracy JK, Junginger J. Correlates of lesbian sexual functioning. Res J Women Health 2007; 16(4): 499–509.
- Shindel AW, Ferguson GG, Nelson CJ, et al. The sexual lives of medical students: a single institution survey. J Sex Med 2008; 5(4): 796–803.
- Hatami HAH, Nozadi M, Parizade M. Textbook of republic health. 2nd ed. Tehran: Arjmand pub; 2009: 1598.
- Speroff L, Fritz MA. Clinical gynecologic endocrinology and infertility. 8th ed. Philadelphia: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins; 2015.
- Azari S, Shahnazi M, Farshbafkhalili A, et al. Reasons for choosing the traditional method (Withdrawal) as contraception among women in Tabriz/Iran. IJWHR 2014; 2(5): 297–300
- Mohammadi K, Heydari M, Faghihzadeh S. The female sexual function index (FSFI): validation of the Iranian version. Payesh 2008; 7(3):269–278.
- Hayes RD, Dennerstein L, Bennett CM, et al. Relationship between hypoactive sexual desire disorder and aging. Fertil Steril 2007; 87(1):107–112.
- Malmborg A, Persson E, Brynhildsen J, et al. Hormonal contraception and sexual desire: a questionnaire-based study of young Swedish women. Eur J Contracept Reprod Health Care 2016; 21(2): 158–167.
- Boozalis A, Tutlam NT, Chrisman Robbins C, et al. Sexual desire and hormonal contraception. Obstet Gynecol 2016; 127(3): 563–572.
- Warnock JK, Clayton A, Croft H, et al. Comparison of androgens in women with hypoactive sexual desire disorder: those on combined oral contraceptives (COCs) vs. those not on COCs. J Sex Med 2006; 3(5): 878–882.
- Zimmerman Y, Eijkemans M, Bennink HC, et al. The effect of combined oral contraception on testosterone levels in healthy women:a systematic review and meta-analysis. Hum Reprod Update 2014; 20(1): 76–105.
- Hollingsworth M, Berman J. The role of androgens in female sexual dysfunction. Sex Reprod Menopause 2006; 4(1): 27–32.
Publication order reference