At the beginning of the present article the period when dialectology was still taking shape is mentioned. Occasional descriptions of dialects were initially unsystematic and did not go beyond the possibilities of grasping a problem methodologically as it was common for 19th century linguistics. The approach of neogrammarians (also young grammarians) was beneficial in the sense that the phenomena were described in detail, consistently and to a large extent truly; the first works on dialectology were very accurate and linguistic phenomena were fairly and sufficiently pre- sented in them. The wider scientific community was encouraged to collect dialectal material mainly by the organizers of an ethnographic exhibition, relating to the material and spiritual culture of Czech, Moravian and Slovak people (in the broader context of Slavic culture), which was held in 1895. Furthermore, in the article are described the results of the inter-war Czech dialectology which mainly includes comprehensive studies by Bohuslav Havránek and Václav Vážný. The new concept of dialectology was marked by the structuralism.