The termination of pregnancy is a complex issue in the legal, ethical, moral and religious dimensions. The author briefl y discusses the circumstances of the adoption in 1993 of a „compromise” Bill on Family Planning, Human Embryo Protection and Conditions of Permissibility of Abortion. But, above all, he provides a cross-sectional and synthetic analysis of the case law of the European Court of Human Rights on this issue. It is clear from the judgments of the Court (e.g. in cases A, B and C v. Ireland and R.R v. Poland), that it does not impose on the States Parties an obligation to introduce in their internal legal systems an unconditional right to abortion. But if such a right is granted, at least in a restricted extent, then — according to the Court — the State is under commitment to ensure procedural conditions for its real enforceability. In the judgment in R.R. v. Poland, the Court, finding pregnant women to be „in a situation of great vulnerability”, gave a new perspective to its earlier case law in this regard. For the fi rst time in relation to this type of cases, it found the defendant guilty, interalia, of violation of the prohibition of inhuman or degrading treatment (Article 3 of the Convention for the Protection of Human Rights and Fundamental Freedoms).