An intensified process of internationalization of businesses of national enterprises in connection with opening of economies of other countries to an international cooperation emphasizes the importance of a contracting party who is mainly responsible for the success of transactions. The activity of enterprises on the global market is accompanied by a multi-dimensional risk of a diverse character and intensification. This article describes one of the elements conected with a transaction risk in a foreign trade, namely delays in payments on the side of foreign purchasers. For this purpose results of a research carried out in June 2014 were used. The research was performed by Atradius Credit Insurance N. V. Joint Stock Company, under the name Payment Practices Barometer, International Survey of B2B Payment Behaviour. The article specifies main reasons of occuring of outstanding settlements and practices of Polish entrepreneurs aiming at reducing the risk of a non-payment, as well as actions taken when payments are delayed. Consequences of defaults in payments substantially endanger the activity of enterprises, the cause a deterioration of a financial liquidity, sometimes they even become the reason of enterprise's bankruptcy. Therefore, it is necessary to obtain accurate an objective information allowing to assess a contracting party's credibility and solvency. The only solution is to take up cooperation with specialized domestic and foreign institutions rendering such services.