Poglądy dydaktyczne J.E. Giliberta
J.E. Gilibert’s didactic views
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When J.E. Gilibert was nominated to head the Chair of Natural History in Vilnius, his task was to introduce education with European standards. He was aware of the potential of his students and the level of their secondary school education. At that time (1781), no textbooks were available in Poland presenting knowledge of botany; the first was written in 1785. Teachers were using assorted, sometimes hardly practical materials, such as excerpts from Roman authors. Gilibert was familiar with this situation from his experience in Grodno, where he had taught for 6 years. At best, learners, i.e. prospective students, were using guidebooks for farmers by Ch. Kluk. This state of affairs was essentially in accordance with original plans of the National Educational Committee, which intended a very practical course of Natural History. The Chair in Vilnius was founded to implement university level education; and Gilibert dedicated a lot of time to didactic recommendations which would help students to develop the competence of botanists capable of studying European literature and communicating with international scientists. This presentation focuses on two important documents. The first one, Prospectus praelectionum cursus Historiae Naturalis. Ad usum Alumnorum Alma uniwersitatis Vilnensis, containing the curriculum of Natural History in Vilnius, will be analyzed from the point of view of its philosophical, epistemic and practical significance. The other one, Exercitium botanicum in schola principe universitatis Vilnensis habendum die mensie Julii anno 1782 seu enumaratio metodica plantarum, will be of interest from the point of view of various methodical comments regarding other works by Gilibert.
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