Dwie restauracje romańskiego portalu z opactwa św. Wincentego na Ołbinie we Wrocławiu i jego akutalna problematyka konserwatorska
TWO RESTORATIONS OF THE ROMANESQUE DOORWAY FROM THE ST. VINCENT ABBEY AT OŁBIN IN WROCŁAW AND THE ACTUAL PROBLEMS OF ITS PRESERVATION
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The recent preservation treatment of the Romanesque doorway of St. Magdalene at Wrocław seeming to represent an entirely new stage within the series of works aimed at fixating of stone sculptures endangered with disintegration has been preceded by preservation operations in centuries that passed, the most important among them being those undertaken in the 16-th and the 19-th centuries. The works carried out in the period of' Renaissance were remarkable by their quite unusual character, for in 1529 the Abbey Church at Ołbin, then sited w ithin the „extra muros” area of the Wrocław fortificational system, has been totally demolished to prevent hostile forces from making use of it for their protection. In those days one of the church’s magnificent doorways was dismantled in the most careful manner and then mounted again at the south wall of the St. Magdalene parish church, located on the actual* town area, The date of that operation, quite extraordinary in its epoch, namely 1546, was evidenced in the records of the time and also in form of an inscription that could be read on the extrados of the doorway archivolt up to the third quarter of the 19-th century. Both the preservation and removal arose from the unquestionably positive appraisal of sculptural and ornamental values present in the doorway’s arrangement. This, though a rare but not sole viewpoint has led to the appearance of a peculiar phenomenon of revival of the Romanesque forms in architecture and plastic arts in the sixteenth-century Wroclaw. The soil for this phenomenon was prepared by the deep interest shown by the local historiographical circles for the twelfth-century monuments closely related to the early stages of the town’s history. The restoration carried out in 1888 appears to be extremely awkward one as compared with that careful behaviour of the sixteenth-century „conservators”. Due to puristic assumptions adopted in the course of restoration were removed all the Renaissance supplementations and additions resulting from altered functions of the doorway. They have been replaced by the nineteenth-century architect with odd details of the neoromanesque ornamentation. As result of an arbitrary approach to motives not complying with his own fairly inadequate knowledge of the Romanesque sculpture, he removed the lions united with bases of the outer flanking columns. It was exactly then that the inscriptions disappeared from the doorway, both the original Romanesque ones and that dating from the Renaissance period, incised to commemorate the removal operation. Actual works on the Wrocław doorway represent only the first from the planned stages within a complete range of works to be undertaken, As one of the next operations it is expected to obtain the castings that could become an excellent way to reintegrate the components of this remarkable masterpiece of Romanesque sculpture which at present are divided between the St. Magdalene church and the two Wrocław museums.
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