PL EN


2002-2003 | 56 | 63-68
Article title

DWA CZEKANY TYPU NORTYCKEN Z CZUBINA ZE ZBIORÓW PAŃSTWOWEGO MUZEUM ARCHEOLOGICZNEGO W WARSZAWIE

Authors
Title variants
TWO KNOBBED SHAFT-HOLE AXES TYPE NORTYCKEN FROM CZUBIN IN THE COLLECTION OF THE STATE ARCHAEOLOGICAL MUSEUM IN WARSAW
Languages of publication
PL
Abstracts
EN
In 1968 two bronze knobbed shaft-hole axes type Nortycken (inv. PMA III/5858:1.2) were added to the collection of the State Archaeological Museum in Warsaw, originating from Czubin, site V (AZP [= Polish Archaeological Record] 58-63/42), pow. Pruszków, woj. mazowieckie (Fig. 1). Both pieces in horizontal projection are rhomboid in outline, their button-like, blade well-defined and splayed (Fig. 2). Their circular shaft-holes are slightly off-centre. On side faces of the axes four horizontal grooves may be seen, at the base of the cutting edge curving out to the sides in twos, away from each other. The upper and the lower face of both axes is without ornament, their surface retains the remains of casting seams. The dimensions of the smaller of the examined pieces (Fig. 2A) are as follows: total L. – 16.4 cm, H. at the shaft-hole – 1.2 cm, W. at the shaft-hole –3.1 cm, shaft-hole D. – 1.9 cm, butt W. – 1.0 cm, butt H. – 3.2 cm, cutting edge L. measured from the base – 3.1 cm, cutting edge H. – 5.6 cm. The colour of the surface is light green (patina) and brownish-gold. The dimensions of the heavier axe (Fig. 2B) are the following: L. – 16.6 cm, H. at the shaft-hole – 1.45 cm, W. at the shaft-hole – 3.1 cm, shaft-hole D. –2.0 cm, butt W. – 1.0 cm, butt H. – 2.0 cm, cutting edge L. measured from the base – 3.3 cm, cutting edge H. – 5.8 cm. The colour of the surface is dark green (patina), in places brownish-gold. Both axes were cast in tin bronze. Chemical composition of the alloy used in casting the smaller piece is as follows: Cu – 88.51%, Sn – 8.6%, Sb – 0.26%, As – 0.23%, Pb – 0.009%, Co – 0.19%, Bi – 0.002%, Ag – 0.005%, Au – 0, Ni –0.95%, Fe – 1.0%, Mn – trace, Cr – trace, Zn – 0.05%, Al. – 0.026%, Cd – 0, Be – 0, Te – 0. The analysed copper and tin alloy shows a substantial content of iron, nickel and cobalt. Chemical composition of alloy used for casting the larger axe is somewhat different: Cu – 89.43%, Sn – 8.6%, Sb – 0.26%, As – 0.02%, Pb – 1.25%, Co –0.04%, Bi – 0.0052%, Ag – 0.1%, Au – 0.0022%, Ni – ca. 0.004%, Fe –0.07%, Mn – 0, Cr – 0, Zn – 0.09%, Al – 0.028%, Cd – 0, Be – 0, Te – 0. It is a copper and tin alloy with a higher content of lead. Differences in the chemical composition of alloys used in casting the two knobbed shaft-hole axes result from natural contamination of the ore, suggesting its different origin. The knobbed shaft-hole axe type Nortycken is classified to the eastern variant, which is recorded from Mecklenburg to Latvia. Although it has been suggested in literature that axes of this type are noted already in Bronze Age II basing on the limited number of known assemblages it seems more appropriate to associate them only with Bronze Age III, more likely, its younger segment, corresponding to phase HA1. The two knobbed shaft-hole axes from Czubin fit within these chronological boundaries. Originally, the two specimens probably belonged to a hoard of bronzes, its individual components recovered from an area of more or less a hectare, starting from the late 19th century until the period between World War I and World War II. The deposit (at least, its part known to us) included between 17 and 19 pieces: five knobbed shaft-hole axes with a button-like butt, type Nortycken, five flanged axes, type Czubin, three palstaves, one Nordic type axe with an ornamented socket, three ornamented bracelets and, possibly, two further bronze pieces (axe and/or knobbed shaft-hole axe), known only from spoken communication. The hoard as a whole is dated to the second half of Bronze Age III.
Keywords
Year
Volume
56
Pages
63-68
Physical description
Contributors
author
  • Państwowe Muzeum Archeologiczne, ul. Długa 52, 00-241 Warszawa, braz@pma.pl
References
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Document Type
Publication order reference
Identifiers
YADDA identifier
bwmeta1.element.desklight-d608be92-59f4-476e-b9b1-732cc4172399
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