PL EN


2014 | 17 | 201-214
Article title

Creole on the Trinidadian Ground: Revisiting the Concept

Authors
Content
Title variants
ES
Criollo en Trinidad: revisión del concepto
Languages of publication
EN ES
Abstracts
EN
This paper examines the multiplicity of the definitions of “Creole” applied by social researchers, linguists, and anthropologists since it was coined in 16th century in the colonies founded by the Portuguese and the Spanish. On the basis of the data gathered during the ethnographic fieldwork in three Secondary Schools in the East-West Corridor of Trinidad, we revisit the definitions of Creole and suggest that only further ethnographic research might provide us with the understanding of the contemporary concept of Creole (or creole, various spellings have been used). In this article we argue that the concept of Creole has different connotations in Trinidad when it refers to language and when it is used to describe ethnicity. In the first case it implies inclusion and unity among Trinidadians, whereas in the latter meaning, it has dubious connotations and it might refer to “us”, the Trinidadians, proud of the diversity (thus again implying inclusion), or, on the other hand, excluding Trinidadian East Indians or Indo-Trinidadians (therefore indicating exclusion).
ES
Este artículo examina la multiplicidad de las definiciones de “criollo”, aplicada por los investigadores sociales, lingüistas y antropólogos, desde que fue acuñado en el siglo XVI en las colonias fundadas por los portugueses y los españoles. Basado en los datos recogidos durante el trabajo de campo etnográfico en tres escuelas secundarias en el corredor este-oeste de la Trinidad (de Trinidad y Tobago), revisamos estos conceptos y sugerimos que sólo la investigación etnográfica adicional puede proporcionarnos el entendimiento del concepto contemporáneo de “criollo”. En este artículo sostenemos que el concepto de criollo tiene diferentes connotaciones en Trinidad cuando se refiere a la lengua y cuando se utiliza para des¬cribir el origen étnico. En el primer caso, implica la inclusión y la unidad entre los trinitenses, mientras que en el último significado tiene connotaciones dudosas y que podría referirse a “nosotros”, los trinitenses, orgulloso de la diversidad (de nue¬vo, lo que implica la inclusión), o por otra lado, excluyendo los indios orientales en Trinidad o los indios trinitenses del ámbito de aplicación (por lo tanto, lo que indica la exclusión).
Year
Issue
17
Pages
201-214
Physical description
Dates
published
2014
Contributors
  • Department of Organization Sciences at VU University in Amsterdam
References
  • Brathwaite, Edward Kamau (1971), The Development of Creole Society in Jamaica 1770-1820, Clarendon Press, Oxford.
  • CIA World Factbook, https://www.cia.¬gov/¬libra¬ry/pub¬li¬ca¬tions/¬the-world-fact¬book/¬geos/¬td.html (accessed: 26.04.2013).
  • “Ethnologue.com”, http://archive.ethnologue.com/16/¬show_¬coun¬try.asp?name=TT (accessed: 26.04.2013).
  • Ferreira, Jo-Anne Sharon (n.d.), The Sociolinguistic situation of Trinidad and Tobago, http://www.unb.br/il/liv/crioul/textos/ferreira.htm (accessed: 16.10.2007).
  • Hannerz, Ulf (1997), “Flows, Boundaries and Hybrids: Keywords in Transnational Anthropo¬logy”. Published in Portuguese as “Fluxos, fronteras, híbridos: palavras-chave da antropologia transnacional”, Mana, No. 3 (1), Rio de Janeiro, pp. 7-39.
  • Holm, John (2000), An Introduction to Pidgins and Creoles, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, pp. 1-13.
  • Jourdan, Christine (1991), “Pidgins and Creoles. Blurring of categories”, Annual Review of Anthropology, No. 20, pp. 187-209.
  • Khan, Aisha (2007), “Good to Think? Creolization. Optimism, and Agency”, Current Anthropology, No. 48 (5).
  • Lowenthal, David (1971), West Indian Societies, Oxford University Press, Oxford.
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  • Morgan, Marcyliena (ed) (1994), Language and the Social Construction of Identity in Creole Situations, Center for Afro-American Studies, Los Angeles.
  • Nettleford, Rex (1978), Caribbean Cultural Identity: The Case of Jamaica, Center for Afro-American Studies, Los Angeles.
  • Palmié, Stephan (2006), “Creolization and Its Discontents”, Annual Review of Anthropology, No. 35, pp. 433-456.
  • Stewart, Charles (2007), Creolization. History, Ethnography, Theory, Left Coast Press, Walnut Creek, CA.
  • Stoddard, Eva; and Grant Cornwell (1999), “Cosmopolitan or Mongrel? Reading Creolite and Hybridity via “Douglarisation” in Trinidad”, in: Ralph R. Premdas (ed.), Identity, Ethnicity and Culture in the Caribbean, The University of the West Indies, St. Augustine.
  • Trzeciak, Joanna (2008), Voicing the Identities of Trinidadian Youth. Creole Language and Identity in Trinidad and Tobago, MSc thesis, Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam.
  • Winford, Donald (1994), “Sociolinguistic approaches to language use in the Anglophone Ca¬ribbean”, in: M. Morgan (ed.), Language and the Social Construction of Identity in Creole Situations, Center for Afro-American Studies, Los Angeles.
Document Type
Publication order reference
Identifiers
YADDA identifier
bwmeta1.element.desklight-d6238332-24b2-451e-962f-cc3552047f28
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