The map of the Grand Duchy of Lithuania prepared by Tomasz Makowski in 1613 from the foundation of Duke Mikołaj Krzysztof Radziwiłł the Orphan (also called the Radziwiłł map) presents the Lithuanian state in its borders before 1569, and provides a rich compendium of information (not only geographical) about the country. The knowledge was transmitted in maps and in the textual information including a large text depicting Lithuania in its “new” borders aft er 1569. The map consists of two parts: the main map presenting the Grand Duchy of Lithuania and the map of the course of the Dnieper with extensive information about rapids on the river and other curiosities. The woods are marked in a modest way on the map. Moreover, a reader is given comprehensive characteristics of the cultural landscape including also historical and ethnographic descriptions (Cossaks customs). On this map 1020 settlement points are marked. The map was prepared according to the standards of the time- the lands of the Grand Duchy of Lithuania were marked on the basis of measurements and local observations, while the neighbouring lands were presented as a result of a compilation of diff erent maps. In the description of Lithuania Tomasz Makowski presented the features of natural and cultural landscapes as well as the most important events and customs of Lithuania. The Radziwiłł map of the Grand Duchy of Lithuania for over 100 years was the most important source of information concerning the territory of the Grand Duchy of Lithuania in Europe.