This paper is an attempt of presentation of many-sided relationships between Józef Czapski and Russia from before his staying in the „inhuman land”. This problem had no studies yet. In my paper I present Czapski’s upbringing in his cosmopolitan “tepid” family and his seeking of an ideology and spiritual values. He had found them in Russian literature and philosophy. He had met the great Russian writers and thinkers (Merezhkovsky, Filosofov) and they had advised him in his searching. After the Russian Revolution, in independent Poland, they met themselves. The Russian writers created the idea of “the Third Russia” what means non-tsarist and non-Bolshevik Russia. Merezhkovsky had met Piłsudski and had asked him in support of this idea. In his conception “the Third Russia” with Poland would fight against Bolsheviks.