2020 | vol. 64, nr 6 | 127-141
Article title

Competition on the LNG market – consequences for the EU

Title variants
Konkurencja na rynku LNG – konsekwencje dla Unii Europejskiej
Languages of publication
The aim of this article is to assess the impact of the natural gas sector’s gradual transition towards a globally-traded commodity market for EU economies. The literature review provides evidence of regulatory, technological and business practice changes that have led to the development of a global gas market. A statistical analysis of the price spreads between the regions and of the differences in the LNG shipment costs is performed to verify whether competition over cargoes at a global level observed over the last years is not temporary. The results confirm that the market-based price indices have become a more relevant and popular form of price reference for short and long-term LNG supply contracts than oil indexation. The author concludes that the transition from regional markets to a global market has brought multiple benefits to EU economies that can be largely lost if Asian economies will be ready to pay substantial premiums for LNG cargoes in the future.
Celem niniejszego artykułu jest ocena wpływu ewolucji sektora gazu ziemnego w kierunku globalnego rynku towarowego na gospodarki Unii Europejskiej. Literatura przedmiotu dostarcza przykładów zmian w środowisku regulacyjnym i biznesowym oraz zmian technologicznych, które przyczyniły się do rozwoju globalnego rynku gazu ziemnego. Przeprowadzono analizę danych statystycznych w zakresie cen gazu ziemnego w różnych regionach świata oraz w zakresie różnic w kosztach dostaw LNG celem weryfikacji, czy globalny charakter handlu gazem ziemnym nie jest zjawiskiem tymczasowym. Wyniki potwierdzają, że rynkowe indeksy cenowe stały się bardziej przydatnym wyznacznikiem wartości gazu ziemnego w krótko- i długoterminowych umowach dostaw LNG niż indeksowanie względem cen ropy naftowej. Autor dowodzi, że rozwój globalnego rynku gazu ziemnego przyniósł wiele korzyści gospodarkom UE, które mogą zostać utracone, jeżeli gospodarki azjatyckie będą gotowe płacić więcej za dostawy LNG w przyszłości.
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