ЗАПИТАННЯ МОЛОДШОГО ШКОЛЯРА ЯК ЕПІЦЕНТР УСПІШНОЇ ДІАЛОГОВОЇ ВЗАЄМОДІЇ
Primary school learners’ questions as the central point of a succesful dialogue activity
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ThearticleincludesashortanalysisoftheinvestigationsofV. Andreev, A. Maslow, C. Rogers, V. Sukhomlynskyi, A. Khutorskyi, M. Lazarev, P. Kapterev, A. Korol, V. Sokolovandotherscholars. Theydefinea dialogueactivityasanimportantmechanismofpupils’searchfornewquestions and concentrate their attention on the development of pupils’ creative abilities in the process of heuristic education. The article deals with the problems of the heuristic and dialogue connections between the past and the present. It reveals one of the ways of teaching primary pupils dialogue interaction through inquiry activity while creating problem situations. The optimal conditions and mechanisms of how pupils’ engagement in solving heuristic tasks can be promoted are studied. On the basis of the analysis of scientific investigations of heuristic dialogue interaction the functions and goals of a question are defined. The article reveals the general algorithm of the organization of creative heuristic activity, the classification of primary pupils’ questions from the perspective of didactics and the mechanisms of interrogative activity complication, including the application of B. Bloom’s taxonomy method. The pupils study questions which gradually become more complicated in separate learning groups on the basis of the analysis of belles-letter and official texts’ samples written by famous scientists and writers. It is necessary for learners to ask exhausting questions about the plot and the structure of the texts and to find answers to these questions. These learning steps are supported by dialogue interaction with the classmates and teachers, who correct the results of cognitive efforts by counter-questions and who create favourable conditions for the pupils to correct their own mistakes and enlarge their knowledge. Having defined specific features and didactic perspectives of heuristic learning and heuristic dialogue, as one of its parts, we conclude that pupils’ ability to ask questions is important for successful dialogue interaction during the lesson and for the development of learners’ cognitive skills. Thus, the article reveals the experience of organization of primary school learners’ dialogue activity in small groups and pays attention to the application of the most frequently used interactive forms and methods of teaching.
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