2012 | 13 - "Stare" i "nowe" mocarstwa w Afryce - stygmaty kulturowe, religijne, polityczne, ekonomiczne i społeczne | 649-676
Rola podmiotów trzecich w kształtowaniu relacji wewnętrznych suwerennego państwa - ONZ wobec Rwandy (1959-2010)
The role of third parties in shaping internal relations withing a sovereign country - the UN towards Rwanda (1959-2010)
Languages of publication
In the period 1959-1962 the United Nations actively assisted Rwanda in the process of gaining independence. Their mutual relations continued after Rwanda became an independent country and were based on the UN providing economic support to Rwanda and Rwanda's representatives taking part in the UN's initiatives and statutory work. In the early 1990»s, after the outbreak of a civil war in Rwanda, the UN presided conciliatory actions. Those actions ended up in a failure, both moral - which resulted in a breakdown of the peace process in April 1994, and military - which resulted in a dramatic decision of withdrawing the UN forces from Rwanda in face of genocide ravaging the country. After 1994 the UN took part in humanitarian actions helping Rwandans to rebuilt their country.
- Anex I. Conclusions of the Rwanda Meeting at Brussels (30 May - 7 June 1960).
- Anex II. Conclusions and recommendation of the Kisenyi talks on Ruanda (7-13 December 1960).
- Anex IV. Letter dated 27 December 1960 from the Chairman of the Commision addressed to the Permanent Representative of Belgium to the United Nations.
- Anex V. Note verbale dated 27 December 1960, from the Permanent Mission of Belgium to the Secretary-general of the United Nations.
- Anex VI. Text of the speech made by the Minister for African Affairs at the opening of the Ostend Conference on 7 January 1961.
- Anex VII. Text of the preliminary address by the Chairman of the Ostend Conference, Mr Van Den Abeele, delivered on 9 January 1961.
- Anex VIII. Text of the First Statement by the Chairman of the Commission made at Ostend on 9 January 1961.
- Annex IX. Text of the second statement by the Chairman of the Commission, made at Ostend, 10 January 1961.
- Annex X. Text of the third statement made by the Chairman of the Commission at Ostend, 11 January 1961.
- Annex XI. Summary of the discussion at the Ostend Conference. Annex XII. Letter dated 24 January 1961 from the Chairman of the Commission addressed to the Minister for African Affairs.
- Annex XIII. Letter dated 25 January 1961 from the Minister for Foreign Affairs addressed to the Chairman of the Commission.
- Annex XIV. Letter dated 27 January 1961 from the Mwami Kigeli V addressed to the Chairman of the Commission.
- Annex XVI. Copy of letter of convocation to the meeting of burgomasters and communal councillors held at Gitarama on 28 January 1961.
- Annex XVII. Official communique concerning the meeting of communal councillors held at Gitarama on 28 January 1961.
- Annex XVIII. Telegram dated 28 January 1961 from the „Rwandese National Congress and Permanent Institutions" addressed to the Resident-General and the Resident of Rwanda.
- Annex XX. Official Belgian Government communique dated 1 February 1961 defining belgium's attitude towards what took place at Gitarama.
- Annex XXIII. Note verbale dated 7 February from the Secretary-General of Ruanda-Urundi addressed to the Commission.
- Annex XXIV. Note verbale dated 8 February 1961 from the Chairman of the Commission to the Secretary-General of Ruanda-Urundi.
- Annex XXVI. Telegram dated 19 February 1961 from Mr. Joseph Giterab addressed to the Commission.
- Annex XXVII. Communication, dated 3 March 1961, from the Belgian Government addressed to the Chairman of the Commission.
- Annex XXVIII. Legislative order No. 221/275 of 18 October 1960 establishing a Council and a Provisional Government in Rwanda.
- Annex XXIX. Legislative order No. 221/276 of 25 October 1960 concerning the Trusteeship Powers.
- Annex XXX. Legislative order No. 02/16 of 15 January 1961 concerning the institutions of Rwanda.
- Annex XXXI. Ordinance No. 02/07 of 15 January concerning the legislative elections in Rwanda.
- Antonowicz L. NZ: bilans dekolonizacji i perspektywy jej zakończenia, w: T. Łoś-Nowak (red.), Narody Zjednoczone. Między oczekiwaniem a spełnieniem, Wrocław 1995.
- Clark P., Kaufman Z. D. (eds.), After Genocide. Transitional Justice, Post -Conflict Reconstruction and Reconciliation in Rwanda and Beyond, London 2008.
- Dallaire R., Shake Hands with the Devil: The Failure of Humanity in Rwanda, New York 2004.
- Declaration on the granting of independence to colonial countries and peoples: Resolutions adopted by the General Assembly at its 15th session, on 14 Dec. 1960, A/RES/1514(XV).
- Des Forges A., Kein Zeuge darf uberlegen, Der genozid in Ruanda, Hamburg 2002.
- Johnson P., Historia świata od roku 1917 do lat 90-tych, Londyn 1992.
- Kinzer S., A Thousand Hills: Rwanda's Rebirth and the Man who Dreamed it, Hoboken 2008.
- Kuperman A. J., The Limits of Humanitarian Intervention: Genocide in Rwanda Washington 2001.
- Marx J., Vólkermord in Rwanda: Zur Genealogie einer unheilvollen Kulturwirkung; Eine diskurshistorische Untersuchung, Hamburg 1995.
- Nowakowska-Małusecka J., Odpowiedzialność karna jednostek za zbrodnie popełnione w byłej Jugosławii i w Rwandzie, Katowice 2000.
- Popiuk Rysińska I., Działalność instytucji międzynarodowych na rzecz pokoju i bezpieczeństwa w Afryce, w: J. J. Milewski, W. Lizak (red.), Stosunki międzynarodowe w Afryce, Warszawa 2002.
- Prunier G., Africa's World War. Congo, the Rwandan Genocide, and the Making of a Continental Catastrophe, Oxford 2009.
- Question of the future of Ruanda-Urundi: Resolutions adopted by the General Assembly at its 15th session, on 20 Dec. 1960, A/RES/1579(XV).
- Question of the future of Ruanda-Urundi. Interim report of the United Nations Commission for Ruanda-Urundi (Addendum), United Nations, Genaral Assembly 15th session, Agenda item 45, 8 March 1961, A/4706/Add.1/.
- Question of the Mwami: Resolutions adopted by the General Assembly at its 15th session, on 20 Dec. 1960, A/RES/1580(XV). Resolution 846 (1993) Adopted by the Security Council at its 3244th meeting on 22 June 1993, S/RES/846 (1993).
- Resolution 872 (1993) Adopted by the Security Council at its 3288th meeting on 5 October 1993, S/RES/872 (1993).
- Resolution 978 on arrest and detention of persons responsible for acts within the jurisdiction of the International Tribunal for Rwanda /adopted by the Security Council at its 3504th meeting, on 27 February 1995, S/RES/978 (1995).
- Security Council resolution 912 (1994) on adjustment of the mandate of the UN Assistance Mission for Rwanda due to the current situation in Rwanda and settlement of the Rwandan conflict. Adopted by the Security Council at its 3368th meeting, on 21 April 1994, S/RES/912 (1994).
- Symonides J., (red.), Organizacja Narodów Zjednoczonych. Bilans i perspektywy, Warszawa 2006.
- Symonides J., Organizacja Narodów Zjednoczonych: geneza, podstawa, cele i zasady funkcjonowania, struktura, organy główne i pomocnicze, system Narodów Zjednoczonych, w: J. Symonides (red.), Organizacja Narodów Zjednoczonych. Bilans i perspektywy, Warszawa 2006.
- United Nations, General Assembly 15th Session, Agenda Item 45, 8 March 1961, A/4706/Add.1/.
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