PL EN


2020 | 4(65) | 147-160
Article title

Orwell się nie mylił. Metafory, polityka i politologia raz jeszcze

Content
Title variants
EN
Orwell was right: Metaphors, politics and political science revisited
Languages of publication
PL EN
Abstracts
PL
Badanie przyczyn, dla których politycy przejawiają skłonności do ubarwiania opisu rzeczywistości i próby uporządkowania dorobku śledzących tę działalność badaczy to domena wciąż daleka od wyeksploatowania, choć liczne wątki stale się w niej powtarzają. Obserwacje i rady zawarte w eseju George’a Orwella Polityce and the English Language [Polityka i język angielski] z 1946 r. stają się coraz bardziej aktualne. W analizach należy jednak odróżniać „metaforę” jako metakategorię określonej dziedziny wiedzy od metafor w postaci konstrukcji „społeczeństwo jako”. Podążając za potrójną logiką współczesnej polityki: władzy, zysku i tożsamości i wzorując się na głęboko już osadzonym pojęciu „anarchofilii” należałoby ukuć trzy „wielkie metafory” i włączyć je do dzisiejszej nauki o polityce: powerfilia – dla opisu dążenia do władzy; profitofilia – dla opisu pogoni za zyskiem; wspólnotofilia – dla opisu radykalnej walki o tożsamość.
EN
Studying why politicians show a tendency to colour the description of reality and try to organize the achievements of researchers following this activity is a domain that is still far from being exploited. However, numerous threads are repeated continuously in it. The observations and advice contained in George Orwell’s 1946 essay Politics and the English Language are becoming more relevant nowadays. In the analysis, however, it is necessary to distinguish “metaphor” as a meta category of a specific field of knowledge from metaphors in the form of the construction “society as”. Following the threefold logic of contemporary politics: power, profit and identity, and modelling on the already deeply rooted notion of “anarchophilia”, three “great metaphors” should be forged and included in today’s science of politics: powerphilia – to describe the pursuit of power; profitophilia – to describe the purpose of profit; communityphilia – to describe a radical struggle for identity.
Year
Issue
Pages
147-160
Physical description
References
  • Abrams, M.H. (red.) (1986), Norton Anthology of English Literature (wyd. 5), Norton, New York.
  • Anarchia – Słownik języka polskiego PWN, https://sjp.pwn.pl/sjp/anarchia;2549943.html [dostęp: 31.08.2020].
  • At $1.3 Trillion, Apple Is Bigger Than These Things (2020), https://www.investopedia.com/news/apple-now-bigger-these-5-things [dostęp: 31.08.2020].
  • Barber B.R. (2011), Jihad Vs. Mcworld, (nowe wyd.), Corgi, London.
  • Bougher L.D. (2012), The case for metaphor in political reasoning and cognition, “Political Psychology”, Vol. 33, No. 1.
  • Buzan B. (2004), The United States and the Great Powers – World Politics in the Twenty-First Century, Polity Press, Cambridge.
  • Buzan B., Jones Ch.A., Little R. (1993), The Logic of Anarchy: Rethinking Neorealism, Columbia University Press, New York.
  • Buzan B., Little R. (1994), The Idea of “International System”: Theory Meets History, “International Political Science Review / Revue Internationale De Science Politique”, Vol. 15, No. 3.
  • Buzan B., Little R. (2015), International systems in world history: remaking the study in international relations, (w:) Hobden S., Hobson J.M., Historical Sociology of International Relations, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.
  • Carver T., Pikalo J. (red.) (2011), Political Language and Metaphor: Interpreting and Changing the World, Routledge, London.
  • Castells M. (1997), The Power of Identity, Blackwell, Malden, MA.
  • Castells M. (2012), The Rise of the Network Society, Wiley-Blackwell, Malden, Mass.
  • Chapman D. (1989), Orwell’s Language and Thought in „Politics and the English Language” and 1984, “Deseret Language and Linguistic Society Symposium” Vol. 15, No. 1.
  • Cooley A. (2005), Logics of Hierarchy: The Organization of Empires, States, and Military Occupations, Cornell University Press, Ithaca, N.Y.
  • Dowding K. (2017), Social and Political Power. Oxford Research Encyclopedia of Politics, https://oxfordre.com/politics/view/10.1093/acrefore/9780190228637.001.0001/acrefore-9780190228637-e-198 [dostęp: 31.08.2020].
  • Fukuyama F. (2019), Identity: The Demand for Dignity and the Politics of Resentment, Picador, New York.
  • Grant J.E. (2013), The Critical Imagination, Oxford University Press, Oxford.
  • Guttenplan S.D. (2005), Objects of Metaphor, Clarendon Press, Oxford.
  • Hampe B. (2017), Metaphor: Embodied Cognition and Discourse, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.
  • Hanne M., Crano W.D., Mio J.S. (2014), Warring with Words: Narrative and Metaphor in Politics, Psychology Press, Taylor & Francis Croup, New York-London.
  • Huang M., Holmgreen L-L. (2020), The Language of Crisis: Metaphors, Frames and Discourses, John Benjamins Publishing Company, Amsterdam-Philadelphia.
  • Huntington S.P., Brzeziński Z. (2011), The Clash of Civilizations and the Remaking of World Order, (nowe wyd.), Simon and Schuster, New York.
  • Kessler S. (2018), Theories of Metaphor Revised: Against a Cognitive Theory of Metaphor: an Apology for Classical Metaphor, Logos, Berlin.
  • Kostecki W. (2005), O metaforach, polityce i politologii, (w:) Kaczmarek B. (red.), Metafory polityki, t. 3, Dom Wydawniczy Elipsa, Warszawa.
  • Kostecki W. (2016), Polityka nie istnieje. Metafory, polityka i politologia, „Myśl Ekonomiczna i Polityczna”, vol. 55, nr 4.
  • Kövecses Z. (2020), Extended Conceptual Metaphor Theory, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.
  • Lakoff G., Johnson M. (1981), Metaphors We Live by, University of Chicago Press, Chicago.
  • Larson D. (2017), Social Identity Theory: Status and Identity in International Relations. Oxford Research Encyclopedia of Politics, https://oxfordre.com/politics/view/10.1093/acrefore/9780190228637.001.0001/acrefore-9780190228637-e-290 [dostęp: 31.08.2020].
  • Lechner, S. (2017), Anarchy in International Relations, Oxford Research Encyclopedia of International Studies, https://oxfordre.com/internationalstudies/view/10.1093/acrefore/9780190846626.001.0001/acrefore-9780190846626-e-79 [dostęp: 31.08.2020].
  • Malešević S. (2019), The Sociology of War and Violence, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.
  • Mannheim K. (1991), Ideology and Utopia: An Introduction to the Sociology of Knowledge: Routledge & Kegan, London [wyd. oryg. (1936), Harcourt, Brace & Co, New York].
  • Marks M.P. (2004), The Prison As Metaphor: Re-imagining International Relations, Lang, New York.
  • Marks M.P. (2019), Revisiting Metaphors in International Relations Theory, Palgrave Macmillan, Basingstoke, Hampshire.
  • Mio J. (2017), Metaphor: Implications and Applications, Routledge, London.
  • Musolff A. (2016), Political Metaphor Analysis: Discourse and Scenarios, Bloomsbury Academic, London.
  • Newman S. (2004), The Place of Power in Political Discourse, “International Political Science Review”, Vol. 25, No. 2.
  • Orwell G. (2018), Politics and the English Language and other essays, Faded Page eBook #20180223 [wyd. oryg. (1946), Between You and I, bmw.].
  • Perrez J., Reuchamps M., Thibodeau P.H. (red.) (2019), Variation in Political Metaphor, John Benjamins Publishing Company, Amsterdam-Philadelphia.
  • Polityka i język angielski (2020), https://www.fantastyka.pl/publicystyka/pokaz/66842807 [dostęp: 31.08.2020].
  • Rigney D. (2001), The Metaphorical Society: An Invitation to Social Theory, Rowman & Littlefield Publishers, Lanham, Md.
  • Stefik M. (2001), Internet Dreams: Archetypes, Myths, and Metaphors, MIT Press, Cambridge, Mass.
  • Steuter E., Wills D. (2009), At War with Metaphor: Media, Propaganda, and Racism in the War on Terror, Lexington Books, Lanham, Md.
  • Trump D.J. (2015), Ending China’s Currency Manipulation, “Wall Street Journal”, 10.11, https://web.archive.org/web/20200516011435/https://factba.se/transcript/donald-trump-op-ed-wsj-20151110 [dostęp: 31.08.2020].
  • Zuckerman A.S. (2005), The Social Logic of Politics: Personal Networks As Contexts for Political Behavior, Temple University Press, Philadelphia.
Document Type
Publication order reference
Identifiers
YADDA identifier
bwmeta1.element.desklight-d924e710-e9fd-4d61-bc12-fc83e77b0660
JavaScript is turned off in your web browser. Turn it on to take full advantage of this site, then refresh the page.