КЛАСИФІКАЦІЇ ОСВІТНІХ ЗМІН У ПЕДАГОГІЧНИХ ДОСЛІДЖЕННЯХ США
Classificationsof educational changes in American pedagogic studies
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The purpose of this article is to determine the main characteristics and summarize existing classifications of educational changes in the American studies on educational issues. The choice of the pedagogy of the USA as an object of research accounts for rich experience of the country in the field of school educational changes analysis as the American scientists are acknowledged developers of the educational change theory which is the theoretical basis for modern school reform processes. It is emphasized in the article that the importance of school development but not simply its operating makes all the changes innovative in nature, otherwise we can talk about reproduction and sharing traditional technologies or techniques. Identification and generalization of a number of specific features of educational changes allow evaluating the effectiveness of the innovative process, determining its direction and perspectives. According to the theory of change, formulated in American researches of the end of the XX century, school organization in conditions of continuous transformations must develop, not adapt its own environment, when responding to unpredictable changes. Methods selection of managing changes in schools and their conformity with innovative process also depends on the type of a particular change. Finally, knowledge of basic features and particulars of any changes in schooling gives an opportunity to distinguish truly innovative initiatives from failed experiments. By applying scientific methods of analysis, synthesis, abstraction, generalization and comparison the criteria of educational changes that are the basis of the classifications are defined. This article argues that educational changes are multidimensional in nature, which results in different approaches to their typology. The characteristic of each type of educational change is introduced. The generalized classification of educational changes is presented in the chart. It is emphasized that knowledge of classified features stimulates both foreign and Ukrainian teachers to build effective models for the process of change, develops new technologies for change management in school organizations as well as finds effective methods and tools for reform implementation. Further research may be focused on improving the classifications of educational changes and making recommendations to Ukrainian educators for developing effective methods and tools of reforming national education.
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