The contribution of mollusc shells in the reconstruction of the natural environment and the human economy of the northern part of the Sandomierz Upland in the third millennium BC — the case study of site 63 in Krzczonowice (south-eastern Poland)
Muszle mięczaków przyczynkiem do rekonstrukcji środowiska naturalnego północnej części Wyżyny Sandomierskiej w II tysiącleciu BC (na przykładzie znalezisk ze stanowiska 63 w Krzczonowicach, pow. ostrowiecki)
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excavations at site 63 in Krzczonowice, are the subject of the present study. The site is located in the northern part of the Sandomierz Upland, south-eastern Poland. Shells of this type have been recorded in a small number of settlement features, which belong to the Globular Amphorae Culture. They unambiguously determine the character of the habitats around the site at the end of the Neolithic period. In the New Stone Age, the loess hill was deforested and then a xeromethric grassland Festuco-Brometea grew, where animals were pastured. Pasturing is an important factor in preventing the natural succession of shrubs. After pasturing ceased to be cultivated, the character of the habitat changed into a shrubby one. Thermophilous shrub clusters of Eastern Poland ,which enjoyed dry forest floor conditions, (Tilio-Carpinetum melittetosu) was later settled by the Bradybaena fruticum (Müll.) species. The xerophilous C. vindobonensis did not receive the proper conditions it needed so it withdrew from the area, this is confirmed by the lack of its remains within the settlement features from the early Iron Age and the Roman period. Molluscs play a vital role in drawing conclusions about the type of habitat used by man and as a “biological data record” they constitute an integral element of an archaeological site. They also leave a natural proof, which aids in the process of determining the cultural facts.
- Institute of Biology, The Jan Kochanowski University of Humanities and Sciences in Kielce, Świętokrzyska st. 15, 25-406 Kielce, Poland
- Archaeological Museum and Reserve „Krzemionki”, Sudół 135a, 27-400 Ostrowiec Świętokrzyski, Poland
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