ФОРМУВАННЯ ІНЖЕНЕРНО-ГРАФІЧНИХ УМІНЬ І НАВИЧОК МАЙБУТНІХ УЧИТЕЛІВ ТЕХНОЛОГІЙ ЯК ПСИХОЛОГО-ПЕДАГОГІЧНА ПРОБЛЕМА
Formation of the future technology teachers’ engineering-graphic skills as a psychological and pedagogical problem
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An attempt was made to investigate the psychological and pedagogical bases of formation of engineering-graphic skills and practice of future teachers of technology. An engineering-graphic skill is a conscious ownership of the system of practical actions needed for purposeful engineering-graphic activity. The system of practical actions involves the selection of necessary knowledge, allocation of basic properties, practical transformation (applying) of knowledge, control and correction of the results of activity and others. Engineering-graphic practice is an improved ability of engineering-graphic activities implemented at the level of unconscious control and ensure the best results with the least mental exertion. Properly formed engineering-graphics skills and practices is a prerequisite for the successful implementation of the basic types of engineering-graphic activities of the students: observation (study) of graphic images; measurement; creating drawings and graphic documentation and others. Each of these skills is based on an appropriate system of knowledge. Important components of the surveillance process are the ability to analyze and transform the shape of the object, make the best choice and arrangement of images. The main component of the measurement process is the ability to detect metric ratio between all structural elements of the form of object and system skills using measuring instruments (ruler, micrometer etc.). Important components of the ability to create drawings and graphic documentation is a system of knowledge about images of spatial objects on the plane, rules of creating drawings and its elements; system of skills working with drawing tools and the moving dynamic thought that allow rethinking constructive element of the object. The formation of engineering-graphic skills include: cognitive, intellectual, practical, motivation and value-volitional spheres of the personality. Thus, complex structure and content of engineering-graphic skills contribute to a comprehensive approach to their formation. Skillful use of engineering-graphic skills and practice stimulates cognitive activity of students, generates self-confidence, and encourages them to improve engineering-graphic preparation.
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