2013 | 61 | 5: Neofilologia | 7-27
Article title

English Equivalents of dicere in Prose Translations of Jerome’s Psalters

Title variants
Ekwiwalenty łacińskiego dicere w prozaicznych tłumaczeniach Psałterzy św. Hieronima
Languages of publication
An examination of English prose translations of Jerome’s Psalter from OE to EMnE reveals that there are four relevant equivalents of the Latin verb dicere: cweðan, secgan > seien > say, tell and speak. In each period in the history of English the verb dicere is translated by a prototypical verb of saying but the prototypes change over time. In OE both cweđan and secgan were amply attested but it was the former that had the status of the prototype. The two verbs are continued in ME but the use of qu8then undergoes morphological and syntactic restrictions as a result of which seien takes over the status of the prototype and is used in all examined ME texts in all contexts. Similarly, in the EMnE translation seien is selected in thirty-four out of thirty-eight contexts, with the remaining four occurrences of dicere are rendered by tell and speak, which were quite frequently attested in the examined texts in the ME period but they were selected as equivalents of loqui, annuntiare, enarrare and narrare. Consistent selection of equivalents seems to characterise the traditional approach to biblical translation, which focuses on the form in the first place. This attitude results from the conviction that sacred texts convey their message not only via direct linguistic expression and is at the same time an expression of the translators’ reverence and respect for the sacred nature of the text they translated.
Badanie ekwiwalentów łacinskiego dicere w angielskich tłumaczeniach Psałterzy św. Hieronima dokonanych pomiędzy okresem staroangielskim a wczesno-nowoangielskim wykazuje, że mamy do czynienia z czterema relewantnymi odpowiednikami: cweðan, secgan > seien > say, tell i speak. W każdym z badanych okresów czasownik dicere jest tłumaczony na angielskie prototypowe czasowniki, z tym, że prototypy z upływem czasu ulegają zmianom: w języku staroangielskim występują zarówno cweðan jak i seccgan, ale to cweðan ma status prototypu. W okresie średnioangielskim oba czasowniki są kontynuowane, ale użycie quēthen podlega ścisłym ograniczeniom zarówno morfologicznym jak i syntaktycznym, a status prototypu uzyskuje seien i to właśnie seien jest użyte we wszystkich badanych tekstach i we wszystkich kontekstach w okresie średnioangielskim oraz w przeważającej większości kontekstów w tłumaczeniu z okresu wczesno-nowoangielskiego. W ostatnim okresie jako odpowiedniki dicere pojawiają się w 4 z 38 badanych kontekstów również czasowniki tell i speak, które już od okresu średnioangielskiego cechuje duża częstotliwość użycia w języku, ale w badanych tekstach są one używane jako ekwiwalenty loqui, annuntiare, enarrare i narrare. Wskazuje to na dużą stabilność wyboru ekwiwalentów (największą w okresie średnioangielskim), co z kolei jest przejawem tradycyjnego podejścia do tłumaczeń biblijnych, w których tłumaczeniu podlega w pierwszej kolejności warstwa formalna. Jest to w równym stopniu skutek przekonania, że w tekście sakralnym znaczenie niesione jest nie tylko drogą bezpośredniego przekazu językowego, co przejaw postawy szacunku dla tłumaczonego tekstu.
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