External costs of transport by rail on the example of the power plant
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According to experts, passenger and goods transport is essential for the economic growth and prosperity of each society. Every transport system burdens the environment, using the dedicated infrastructure and its resources. The contemporary means of transport use the environment to generate propulsion energy (directly in combustion engines or indirectly in electric power plants). Rail transport is considered to be environment-friendly owing to its low external costs, which include the costs of the consequences of discharging gases and/or dusts into the atmosphere. In the paper the method of research, which is characterized by a different ratio than in the observation of the subject to the phenomenon under consideration. Observing the studied phenomenon has not been changed. The aim of this research was to identify the components of rail transport costs borne by the orderer of a transport service and by the electric power plant supplying the railway with electricity, on the basis of a case study of the transport of aggregate. Calculations showed the share of such costs in transport costs (in the considered case) to be marginal. In the light of this finding the definition of external costs is critically evaluated..
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