Nowy etap ochrony czeskich i morawskich miast historycznych
NEW STAGE OF PRESERVATION OF CZECH AND MORAVIAN HISTORICAL TOWNS
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The author tackles the subject of the legal and substantial premises employed in recognizing some Czech and Moravian towns as historical. Attention is paid, in particular, to the ordinance of 1971 by virtue of which the „historical agglomeration of Prague” has been recognized as a reserve. In v iew of the position taken by that city in the history of European town planning, of the complex character of the problems involved and feasibility o f the proceedings under way, the said legal act seems to be one of the most important ventures in the sphere of conservation practice in our century. N ex t the problems is ex tensiv ely discussed of the preservation o f Prague’s New Town district, tho urban plan of which dates from the 14th century but the area built over is characteristic o f the second half of the 19th and beginning of the 20-th century. In spite o f numerous projects for making that d istrict built up with tall buildings, the Czech conservation bodies have managed to protect it against those attempts, above all, on account o f Charles IV city built there in the 14th century and being a unique monument of mediaeval town planning (a la r ge area of more than 2 sq km, with a system of spacious squares and radial streets). The programme for its conservation provides for exposing that urban layout with due attention paid to later development stages. This necessitates solving of numerous problems (i.a. that of the height of the buildings there). At present there are already being made investments consonant with the conservators’ suggestions, e.g. the PRIOR department store at the Square of the Republic and reconstruction of the gable and towers of the Church of the Benedictine Convent. The concluding part of the paper deals with v a rious criteria employed in classification of towns. Emphasis is laid on the fact that the mere number of historical monuments situated on their area has ceased to be an absolute criterion. A differentiation has been introduced between historical monuments and objects of interest from the viewpoint of conservation. It was on that route that a total of 924 towns have been covered by classification and divided into the respective categories, their verification being, however, still in progress the figures involved changing as a result of those proceedings.
- J. Ma y e r , A. V o ś a h l i k , Ochrona metske pomatkove rezervace v Praze, „Pamatkova Peoe”, nr 2. 1972, s. 87.
- J. V o z e n i l e k , Probleme de la regeneration de la zone historique de Prague, [w:] Monumentorum tutela — Ochrana pamiatok, 3, 1967, s. 316; E. H r u s k a, Stavba mest, Bratislava 1970.
- A. E. B r i n c k m a n n , Stadtbaukunst vom Mittelalter bis zur Neuzeit, Wildpark-Potsdam 1925, s. 42—44.
- V. L o r e n c, Nove Mesto prazske, P ra h a 1973.
- ibidem, s. 11, 135, 198.
- Ibidem, s. 198.
- J. Vo z e ni l e k, o.c., s. 311—317; J. Ma y e r , A. V o s a h l i k , o.e., s. 89—91; J. L i b a l o v a , Nove Mesto praźske a problemy jeho obnovy, „Pamatkova Pece”, n r 2, 1972, s. 93—100.
- J. L i b a l o v a , o.c., s. 95, 97.
- Ibidem, s. 96; J. Ma y e r , Regenerace prazske pamatkov e rezervace a je j i predpoklady, „Pamatkova Реcе”, nr 2, 1972, s. 109.
- J. L ib a l o v a , o.e., s. 98—99; V. L o r e n c , o.e. s. 196.
- J. V o ź e n i l e k, o.c., s. 315—316.
- J. L i b a l o v a , o.c., s. 98.
- K. P a w ł o w s k i , M. W i t w i e k i, Problemy oceny wartości zabytkowej historycznych zespołow mie j skich, „Ochrona Zabytkow”, R. XXI, nr 4, 1968, s. 3—11.
- K. Ki b i c , К pamatkove ochranę nasich historickych mest, „Pamatkova Pece”, nr 2, 1973, s. 84—85.
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