2016 | 5 | 107-131
Article title

The Eyes and Ears: The Sasanian and Roman Spies ca. AD 222-450

Title variants
Languages of publication
The article The Eyes and Ears: 1) Provides a brief analysis of the several parallel security organizations of the two superpowers of antiquity when they were still at their prime; 2) Discusses both internal and external security matters; 3) Analyzes separately the military and civilian intelligence; 4) Examines the role of the religious organizations, ‘heresies’ and security; 5) Discusses briefly the ways in which the intelligence was obtained, analyzed, assessed and disseminated, and for what purpose; 6) Provides an overview of the successes and failures and of the limits of intelligence; 7) Demonstrates some similarities between modern and ancient practices.
Physical description
artykuł naukowy
  • University of Haifa, Israel
  • AUSTIN N. J. E., RANKOV N. B. (1995), Exploratio. Military and Political Intelligence in the Roman World from the Second Punic War to the Battle of Adrianople, London/New York.
  • BIRLEY A. R. (2000), Septimius Severus, London/New York.
  • CAMERON A. (2013), Last Pagans of Rome, Oxford/New York.
  • CHRISTIANSEN A. (1936), L’Iran sous les Sassanides, Copenhagen.
  • DARYAEE T. (2009), Sasanian Persia. The Rise and Fall of an Empire, London/New York.
  • DVORNIK P. (1974), Origins of Intelligence Services, New Brunswick.
  • FRANK R. I. (1969), Scholae Palatinae, Rome.
  • FUHRMANN C. J. (2012), Policing the Roman Empire, Oxford.
  • HOLUM K. G. (1982/1989), Theodosian Empresses. Women and Imperial Dominion in Late Antiquity, Berkeley.
  • ISAAC B.H. (1990), The limits of empire: the Roman army in the East, Oxford.
  • KELLY CH. (2004), Ruling the Later Roman Empire, Cambridge/London.
  • KGB Alpha Team Training Manual (Boulder 1993).
  • LEBOHEC Y (1994), The Imperial Roman Army, London/New York.
  • MACMULLEN R. (1989), Corruption and Decline of Rome, New Haven.
  • MATTHEWS J. (1975/2001), Western Aristocracies and Imperial Court AD 364-425, Oxford.
  • MIRKHOND (1713), French tr. by A.I.S. DE SACY in Mémoires sur diverses antiquités de la Perse, et sur les médaillons des rois de la dynastie des Sassanides, Paris.
  • NECHAEVA E (2012), Les activités secretes ambassadeurs dans l’antiquité tardive, [in:] Ambassadeurs et ambassades au cœur des relations diplomatiques. Rome – Occident médiéval – Byzance (VIIIe s. avant J.-C. - XIIe s. après J.-C.), A. BECKER, N. DROUCOURT (eds.), Metz, 183-202.
  • NECHAEVA E. (2004), Double Agents in the Intelligence Service under Justinian. Evidences of Procopius of Caesaria, „Živa Antika-Antiquité Vivante”, 54 , 137-147.
  • NECHAEVA E. (2014), La traversée de la frontière par les ‘émigrants’ en fuite, selon Ammien Marcellin, [in:] Voyages, déplacements et migrations, F. DEROCHE, M. ZINK (eds.), Paris, 89-107.
  • OGDEN D. (2002), Magic, Witchcraft, and Ghosts in the Greek and Roman Worlds. A Sourcebook, Oxford.
  • PATTENED P. (1983), The Byzantine Early Warning System, „Byzantion”, 53, 258-299.
  • PLRE 1 - Prosopography of the Later Roman Empire, t. 1 (260-395). Cambridge 1971.
  • PLRE 2 - Prosopography of the Later Roman Empire, t. 2 (395-527). Cambridge 1980.
  • POUSHARIATI P. (2008), Decline and Fall of the Sasanian Empire, London/New York.
  • REYNOLDS BAILLIE P. K. (1923), The Troops Quartered in the Castra Peregninorum, „Journal of Roman Studies”, 13, 168-189.
  • SECUNDA N. (1992), The Persian Army 560-330 BC, Oxford.
  • SHELDON R. M. (2005), Intelligence Activities in Ancient Rome, London/New York.
  • SYVÄNNE (2015c) I., Agens in Rebus, [in:] Encyclopedia of the Roman Army, Y. LE BOHEC (ed.), Chichester.
  • SYVÄNNE I. (2004), The Age of Hippotoxotai, Tampere.
  • SYVÄNNE I. (2009), Teutoburg Forest 9 AD, „Saga Newsletter”, 119 June 2009, 9-23.
  • SYVÄNNE I. (2009a), The Campaign and Battle of Sambre/Sabis in 57 BC, „Saga Newsletter”, 117, 5-16.
  • SYVÄNNE I. (2014), Persia, la caida de un imperio, „Desperta Ferro”, 24.
  • SYVÄNNE I. (2015-.), Military History of Late Rome 284-641 (six volumes (AD 284-361, 361-395, 395-425, 425-518, 518-565, 565-641), Pen & Sword Publishing forthcoming. The Vol. 1 was published in 2015.
  • SYVÄNNE I. (2015), Bahram V Gōr: The Revitalization of the Empire through Mounted Archery, „Historia i Świat”, 4, 71-102.
  • SYVÄNNE I. (2015a), La campaña de Juliano en Persia (363 d.C.). Un análisis crítico, „Desperta Ferro”, 29.
  • SYVÄNNE I. (2015b), Foederati, [in:] Encyclopedia of the Roman Army, Y. LE BOHEC (ed.), Chichester.
  • SYVÄNNE I. (2017), Caracalla: A Military Life (Pen &Sword Publishing, Barnsley) forthcoming in 2017.
  • WARD S. R. (2009), Immortal, Washington.
Document Type
Publication order reference
YADDA identifier
JavaScript is turned off in your web browser. Turn it on to take full advantage of this site, then refresh the page.