Sądowe księgi ziemskie w państwie zakonu krzyżackiego w Prusach w późnym średniowieczu
Judical land registers in the state of the Teutonic Order in Prussia in late Middle Ages
Die Bücher des Landsgericht im Staat des Deutsch Ordens in Preußen im Spätmittelalter
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The origin of land courts in the state of the Teutonic Order in Prussia can be dated on 13th/14th century. They were created not only on territories subordinated to the Teutonic Order’s authority but also in bishops and chapters’ dominions. Those institutions settled the cases concerning disputed goods, inheritance or sale disputes, but only in cases concerning land domains. They were adequate for knighthood as well as for foreigners and burghers. Their sentences were set down in appropriate books („schoppenbuch des lantgerichts”, „lantbuch”). In the state of the Teutonic Order in Prussia in the Middle Ages, there existed separate land registers for majority (if not all) administrative districts. The most information about them are contained in the letters of judges and members of jury, extracts from assessor land registers, made by court on request of parties concerned or the great master and finally assessor municipal registers as well. References in the latter ones are encountered because of the fact that a burgher was one of the transaction parties, and it was land domains that were the subject of transaction. Apart from the registers from Bartoszyce and Dąbrówno preserved up to the present times, there also existed judicial land registers for the Chełmno Land, Teutonic Commander of Tuchola, Człuchów, Świecie and also for Pomezanian dominium. Those registers were most likely kept in special cases („landlade”), which were then located in places where land courts for a particular territory were sitting.
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