The aim of the article is to ground the importance of physical education during aviation specialists’ professional training. The article describes the peculiarities of physical training in civil aviation. The attention is focused on the role of physical training for cadets during studying in the flight education institutions and for pilots on duty. It reveals the importance of formation of aviation specialists’ psychological and psycho-physiological readiness for professional work and career longevity. It is stressed that physical training ensures formation of physical and psycho-physiological qualities necessary for future aviation specialists’ professional activity. It highlights general and special methods of physical education, their brief characteristics are given. Physical training is divided into general and special. Different types of physical exercises are used to solve the problems of general physical training: walking, running, gymnastics, ski training, swimming, sports, tourism and others. General physical training generates overall physical qualities: stamina, speed, flexibility, strength, agility. Special physical training is aimed at developing and improving the special qualities that are needed in the future professional activity, and increasing the reliability of psychophysiological organism. Special physical training includes sports, outdoor games, special complicated games and exercises. Some exercises are athletics, gymnastics, acrobatics, ski training and swimming. Exercises on fitness equipment for flight crew are performed using special methods. It is noted that it is important for students to adopt a habit of regular physical exercises. The self-development form of physical training involves exercises, which serve special purposes under special conditions. They are provided for aviation specialists who suffer performance impairment in the professional activity. The main objective is to maintain human performance while on duty. The exercises are selected taking into account long-term reduced mobility and functional degradation of individual systems and the whole organism. Exercises performed during long-haul flights should create a positive emotional background and should not cause excessive fatigue. It is concluded that professional activity in civil aviation requires a whole range of physical and psycho-physiological characteristics that determine the aviation specialists’ readiness to perform professional tasks under normal and stress conditions. Goal-oriented physical training is the most effective way to increase human performance of aviation professionals.