OWADY NISZCZĄCE ZABYTKI DREWNIANE
INSECTS DAMAGING WOODEN HISTORICAL HERITAGE IN POLAND
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Due to the environmental conditions, dimension and significance of the damage caused by assorted species of insects feeding on wood in Poland the author proposed a division into six groups. Species included into groups IV, V and VI are shown in Photographs. Group I encompasses insects damaging dry timber : Hylotrupes bajulus L., Anobium punctatum De Geer, Ptilinius pectinicornis L., Lyctus sp. and rare species from the Oligomerus sp. genus. The second group is composed of two species which require moist timber, partially disintegrated by fungi, for the initial development of the larvae, which in time become so resilient to the decline of moisture that they are capable of feeding on timber that does not provide conditions for the development of fungi. The species in question are: Xestobium rufovillosum De Geer and the locally occurring Xestobium austiacum Reitt. The third group, less significant in contrast to its predecessors, is composed of insects damaging exclusively moisture-laden and fungi-ridden wood: Anobium pertinax L., Priobium carpini Hrbst., Nacerdes melanura L., Corymbia rubra L., Ergates faber L., Stereocorynes truncorum Germ., Cossonus parallelepipedus Herbst., Pselactus spadix Herbst. and Chalkophora mariana L. which rarely cause damage to formed timber. Insects in groups IV, V and VI are even less significant as pests attacking historical monuments. The fourth group includes those insects which damage wooden constructions and timber kept in storage or wooden raw material (Arhopalus rusticus L., Asemus striatum L. and certain species from the Siricidae family). The fifth group comprises insects inhabiting barked timber used in constructions: Callidium viloaceum L. and Ernobius mollis L. The sixth group is composed of insects which hollow formed timber in order to obtain nesting places. These insects, which are neither xylophagous nor use fungi developing on timber, include such species as: Dermesters sp., Lasius sp. and Camponotus sp. The author additionally indicated the possibility of damage incurred by certain species of wasps (Vespidae) to the surface of wood shielded with special protective-decorative substances. The article discusses assorted possibilities of protective prophylaxis and methods of combating various groups of insects.
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