The Essence and Phenomenology of Expertise of Education
The article covers an extremely actual problem of perspective development of psychological service where being a special kind of assessing activity the vector of carrying out psychological expert opinion attracts special attention. This assessing activity has spread over all spheres of social practice. The author analyses the essence of the notions «education», «humanitarization of education», «humanitarian system» and «humanistic education system». The author treats them from the point of perspectives of putting an expert opinion into psychological and pedagogical practice and foreseeing its results for the society. The last one is mentioned to cause the necessity of carrying out expert investigation of psychological and pedagogical reality, working out the principles, methodology and methods of humanitarian examination of education. Humanistic approach towards education and the concept of psychical health serve as the theoretical basis. It is pointed out that an expert opinion is paid more and more attention as one of the main tools of realization of the changes in education. The author defines the expert opinion to be a method of investigating and solving problem situations by the experts who master special knowledge, the ways of choosing the most reasoned decisions. All the above named approaches to the interpretation of the notion of expertise help to isolate something in common that unites them, and can be considered as complementary components of the notion: mandatory encourage complete information about an object or phenomenon; its study and analysis; evaluation; formulate proposals on possible ways of further functioning of the studied object or phenomenon in the form of a reasoned opinion provided special knowledge involved the expert. It should be noted that for expert information received in foreign science, there are several points of view concerning information and expert interaction in the terms of expertise. The supporters of one of them believe that the resultant expert information is incomplete, fragmented in relation to the whole process and the selected part of it, and the results of analysis do not occur simultaneously and tend to the development and evolution. The scientists who advocate another, believe that the information obtained expert in the study, for it is neutral, which defines the independence of its research positions and objectivity of expert opinions. Further investigations can presuppose grounding new targets of practical psychologist training toward carrying expert activity and theoretical and methodological aspects of its providing.
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