PL EN


2013 | LXXXIX (89) | 79-97
Article title

Kulturowy wymiar zbrodni ludobójstwa

Content
Title variants
EN
Cultural aspects of the crime of genocide
Languages of publication
PL
Abstracts
EN
This paper examines cultural aspects of the crime of genocide. Although the concept of cultural genocide was rejected by the drafters of Genocide Convention in 1948, the notion appears from time to time in international discourse. It was associated with colonization process and forced assimilation of indigenous people, however some commentators also use it to describe policies of modern states towards minority groups living on their territories. International framework for the protection of minorities and indigenous people can be seen as a substitute for the legal concept of cultural genocide, however the scope of the protection offered by these two areas – international criminal law and human rights law – is substantially different. Yet, cultural considerations play a subsidiary role within binding understanding of genocide, which is reflected in the jurisprudence of ad hoc criminal tribunals, as they help to establish the specific, genocidal intent and to define the outlines of the groups protected. Supporters of the notion point out, that cultural genocide can perform another important role – evidence of cultural genocide should be treated as an early warning that can contribute to prevention of mass atrocities. This is especially important in the light of recent development of the Responsibility to Protect (R2P) doctrine. To conclude, the international crime of genocide will probably remain limited to the physical and biological dimension, as there is no will of states to expand the notion, however its cultural aspects should not be neglected.
Year
Volume
Pages
79-97
Physical description
Dates
published
2013
Contributors
  • Uniwersytet Łódzki, Katedra Prawa Międzynarodowego i Stosunków Międzynarodowych
References
  • Alvarez A., Governments, citizens and genocide: a comparative and interdisciplinary approach, Indiana University Press, Bloomington 2001.
  • Balcerzak M., Sykuna S. (red.), Leksykon ochrony praw człowieka, Warszawa 2010.
  • Cassese A., International Criminal Law, Oxford University Press, Oxford 2008.
  • Clastres P., Archeology of violence, Semiotext(e), New York 1994.
  • Daranowski P., Prawa mniejszości w powszechnym prawie międzynarodowym, [w:] D. Górecki (red.), Sytuacja ludności polskiej na Wschodzie w świetle obowiązującego prawa i praktyki, Toruń 2009.
  • Grocjusz H., Trzy księgi o prawie wojny i pokoju, t. II, Warszawa 1957.
  • Gumkowski J., Kułakowki T., Zbrodniarze hitlerowscy przed Najwyższym Trybunałem Narodowym, Wyd. Praw., Warszawa 1965.
  • Jones A., Genocide: A comprehensive introduction, Routledge, London 2011.
  • Koskenniemi M., Evil intention or vicious acts: what is prima facie evidence of genocide? [w:] M. Tupamaki (ed.), Liber amicorum Bengt Broms, Finnish Branch of the International Law Association 1999, s. 180–207.
  • Lemkin R., Acts Constituting a General (Transnational) Danger Considered as Offences Against the Law of Nations, http://www.preventgenocide.org/lemkin/madrid1933-english.htm; dostęp: 28.02.2013 r.
  • Lemkin R., Akte der Barbarei und des Vandalismus als delicta juris gentium, Anwaltsblatt Internationales, Wien 1933.
  • Lemkin R., Axis rule in occupied Europe, The lawbook exchange 2005.
  • Morsink J., Cultural Genocide, the Universal Declaration, and Minority Rights, Human Rights Quarterly 1999/21.
  • Nersessian D., Rethinking Cultural Genocide Under International Law, [w:] Human Rights Dialogue, Cultural Rights 2005.
  • Robinson N., The Genocide Convention: A Commentary, Institute of Jewish Affairs, New York 1960.
  • Sautman B., Cultural genocide in international context, [w:] B. Sautman, Cultural genocide and Asian state peripheries. Cultural genocide in international context, Palgrave Macmillan, New York 2006.
  • Schabas W., Genocide in International Law, Cambrige University Press, London, New York 2000.
  • Wierczyńska K., Pojęcie ludobójstwa w kontekście orzecznictwa międzynarodowych trybunałów karnych ad hoc, Warszawa 2010.
  • Zajadło J., Koncepcja odpowiedzialności za ochronę (Responsibility to Protect) – nowa filozofia prawa międzynarodowego?, [w:] J. Kranz (red.), Świat współczesny wobec użycia siły zbrojnej: dylematy prawa i polityki, Warszawa 2009.
  • Orzeczenia sądów, Bośnia i Herzegovina v. Serbia i Czarnogóra, 26.02.2007 r., MTS.
  • Orzeczenia sądów, Demokratyczna Republika Konga v. Rwanda, 3.02.2006 r., MTS.
  • Orzeczenia sądów, Prosecutor v. Kayishema and Ruzindana, sprawa nr ICTR-95-1-T.
  • Orzeczenia sądów, Prosecutor v. Jelistic, sprawa nr IT-95-10-T.
  • Orzeczenia sądów, Procecutor v. Rutaganda, sprawa nr ICTR-96-3-T.
  • Orzeczenia sądów, Prosecutor v. Akayesu, sprawa nr ICTR-96-4-T.
  • Orzeczenia sądów, Prosecutor v. Krstic, sprawa nr IT-98-33-T.
  • Orzeczenia sądów, US v. Ulrich Greifelt, et al., US Military Tribunal Nuremberg, 10.03.1948.
  • Whitaker B., Special Rapporteur, Revised and updated report on the question of the prevention and punishment of the crime of genocide, Sub-commission on the Prevention of Discrimination and Protection of Minorities, E/CN. 4/Sub.2/1985/6, 1985.
  • International campaign for Tibet, 60 years of Chinese misrule, arguing cultural genocide in Tibet, 2012.
Document Type
Publication order reference
Identifiers
ISSN
0081-6841
YADDA identifier
bwmeta1.element.desklight-e8a7df01-651b-4810-9482-2be9287694b8
JavaScript is turned off in your web browser. Turn it on to take full advantage of this site, then refresh the page.