Interkosmos – the international space research program – is multilayered; it covers a variety of aspects: political, scientific, economic, propaganda, technical, etc. In the article, the authors provide insight into technical support for the Interkosmos program carried out at the Dnepropetrovsk Space and Rocket Center. The engineering background for the conversion of the Center-developed military rocketry for use in space exploration is studied. The authors, relying on the recollections of the participants, reveal the little-known aspects of the creation of a powerful satellite development facility at the Dnepropetrovsk Space and Rocket Center. The article brings into the foreground the importance of KB Yuzhnoye’s idea of developing a ‘unified spacecraft’, meaning a space platform where it was possible to install miscellaneous devices for pursuing a wide range of scientific issues. Using the example of Poland and India, some results obtained during launches of unmanned and manned spacecraft under the Interkosmos program are studied. The participation of the mentioned countries in the creation process of many scientific instruments for implementation of the Interkosmos program and the importance of this research and design direction are accentuated.