The article disclosed and substantiated the ideas of child-centrism of the pedagogical heritage of Vasily Alexandrovich Sukhomlinsky and their roles in the modern system of education. It is determined that the teacher was developing the ideas that were not typical for Soviet pedagogy including the idea of the freedom of choice, the freedom of will, self-worth and uniqueness of each individual. On the basis of a retrospective analysis it is found out that the views of the scientist were built on the ground of the child-centrism and they made a holistic educational system which was implemented successfully in a three-vector area: teacher – child – environment. The main child-centrism ideas of the humanistic system of Vasily Alexandrovich Sukhomlinsky are picked out and characterized. Among them: the uniqueness of each child, the humanistic attitude of the teacher towards the students, the humanization of the educational process. One of the main ideas in the system of V. A. Sukhomlinsky’s humanistic attitudes on the essence of the educational process is the idea of a man as the unique and the higher value, which means not just to respect but to love him, to strive for understanding him and to help him with something, to do only good for him, to be able to share troubles and joy with him. The analysis of the theoretical heritage of an outstanding teacher gives grounds to assert that he explored the profession of a teacher deeply, he substantiated the concept of humanistic orientation of the teacher’s personality and outlined the aspects of the teacher’s humanistic position, such as: the respect that is combined with the exactingness, the wise authority of the teacher over the child, the child’s trust to the teacher, the caution with accusations. The core of the humanistic system of Vasily Sukhomlinsky is the principle of individual approach, which is the basis of pedagogy since its inception and is available in almost all the works of the teachers of the past. And only Vasily Alexandrovich made this principle as the main component of the educational process of his «School of joy», in which the special attention was paid to the education of the abilities and aptitudes of the pupils with brightly expressed inclinations. A subject for further research could be the compilation of meaningful portrait of the notion of «child-centrism» on the basis of the comparison of the positions of various scholars and representatives from different eras.