The article deals with the problem of professional teacher autonomy in the context of foreign languages autonomous learning technology, its place, the role and interaction with the student as a pedagogical dialogue in higher education. Categorical analysis of the notion “teacher autonomy” in the educational process of high school is highlighted. The functional purpose of the teacher as a competent professional who transfers knowledge is shown. It’s revealed that teacher autonomy is seen in several dimensions: freedom to express their own vision regarding the curriculum and methods of mastery and autonomy of the teacher as a professional attribute to develop his/her own autonomy, self-directing of professional development, and as a consequence –learner autonomy. The main task of the teacher becomes the development of learning strategies that promote the ability to plan, manage, assess, monitor their own learning and take correct decisions. Emphasis is on sharing responsibility between a teacher and a learner, as well as their cooperation in educational process. The role of the teacher in the process of autonomous learning is complex and diverse. First, the teacher is not an authoritarian leader who basically transfers knowledge. This is not an obedient executor of the curriculum, but the person who is able to adjust according to the learning situation and tries to implement approaches creatively. However, this does not mean lack of control over teaching, but only shift of the responsibility for the outcome of teacher training, reflection on their own professional activity, standardizing educational process and excessive administrative intervention, which reduces the autonomous teacher qualities. Teacher autonomy promotes updating of his own internal resources for acquiring various levels of professional culture, the need to accumulate new knowledge and raising his own professionalism. It was recognized that the level and development of learner’s autonomy depends on the professional autonomy of teachers. It should be emphasized that teacher’s autonomy is not independence from external social and cultural factors. It is concluded that development of professional teacher autonomy is an important factor of improving of the national education quality.