2013 | 1 | 27-33
Article title

Subkliniczna dysfunkcja tarczycy – czy i kiedy leczyć?

  • Biondi B, Cooper DS . The clinical significance of subclinical thyroid dysfunction. Endocr Rev 2008; 29: 76–131.
  • Ross DS , Cooper DS , Mulder JE. Subclinical hypothyroidism. Version 19.3. Dostępny:
  • Chmiel-Perzyńska J, Derkacz M. Niedoczynność tarczycy w praktyce lekarza rodzinnego – od objawów do rozpoznania. Fam Med Prim Care Rev 2009; 11: 568–571.
  • Gietka-Czernel M. Niedoczynność tarczycy. W: Zgliczyński W, red. Wielka Interna. Endokrynologia. Warszawa: Medical Tribune Polska; 2011: 243–255
  • Bemben DA , Hamm RM, Morgan L, et al. Thyroid disease in the elderly. Part 2. Predictability of subclinical hypothyroidism.J Fam Pract 1994; 38: 583–588.
  • Zhu DF, Wang ZX, Zhang DR , et al. fMRI revealed neural substrate for reversible working memory dysfunction in subclinical hypothyroidism. Brain 2006; 129: 2923–2930.
  • Tan ZS , Beiser A, Vasan RS , et al. Thyroid function and the risk of Alzheimer disease: the Framingham Study. Arch Intern Med 2008; 168: 1514.
  • Erkan G, Erkan AF, Cemri M, et al. The evaluation of diastolic dysfunction with tissue doppler echocardiography in women with subclinical hypothyroidism and the effect of l-thyroxine treatment on diastolic dysfunction: a pilot study. J Thyroid Res 2011, Article ID 654304, 7 pages.
  • Razvi S, Weaver JV, Vanderpump MP, et al. The incidence of ischemic heart disease and mortality in people with subclinical hypothyroidism: reanalysis of the Whickham Survey Cohort. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 2010; 95: 1734–1740.
  • Rodondi N, den Elzen WPJ, Bauer DC , et al. Subclinical hypothyroidism and the risk of coronary heart disease and mortality.JAMA 2010; 304: 1365–1374.
  • Hueston WJ, Pearson WS . Subclinical hypothyroidism and the risk of hypercholesterolemia. Ann Fam Med 2004; 2: 351–355.
  • Hak AE , Pols HA, Visser TJ, et al. Subclinical hypothyroidism is an independent risk factor for atherosclerosis and myocardial infarction in elderly women: the Rotterdam Study. Ann Intern Med 2000; 132: 270–278.
  • Imaizumi M, Akahoshi M, Ichimaru S, et al. Risk for ischemic heart disease and all-cause mortality in subclinical hypothyroidism.J Clin Endocrinol Metab 2004; 89: 3365–3370.
  • Monzani F, Caraccio N, Kozakowa M, et al. Effect of levothyroxine replacement on lipid profile and intima-media thickness in subclinical hypothyroidism: a double-blind, placebo- controlled study. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 2004; 89: 2099–2106.
  • Nagasaki T, Inaba M, Kumeda Y, et al. Central pulse wave velocity is responsible for increased brachial-ankle pulse wave velocity in subclinical hypothyroidism. Clin Endocrinol (Oxf) 2007; 66: 304–308.
  • Taddei S, Caraccio N, Virdis A, et al. Impaired endothelium dependent vasodilatation in subclinical hypothyroidism: beneficial effect of levothyroxine therapy. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 2003; 88: 3731–3737.
  • Gussekloo J, van Exel E, de Craen AJM, et al. Thyroid status, disability and cognitive function, and survival in old age. JAMA 2004; 292: 2591–2599.
  • Akhoundi FH, Gharbani A, Soltani A, et al. Favorable functional outcome in acute ischemic stroke patients with subclinical hypothyroidism. Neurology 2011; 77: 349–354.
  • Yang JK, Liu W, Shi J, et al. An association between subclinical hypothyroidism and sigh-threatening diabetic retinopathy in type 2 diabetic patients. Diabet Care 2010; 33: 1018–1020.
  • Chen HS, Wu TE , Jap TS , et al. Subclinical hypothyroidism is a risk factor for nephropathy and cardiovascular diseases in type 2 diabetic patients. Diabet Med 2007; 24: 1336–1344.
  • Casey BM, Dashe JS, Wells CE , et al. Subclinical hyperthyroidism and pregnancy outcomes. Obstet Gynecol 2006; 107:337–341.
  • Kong WM, Sheikh MH, Lumb PJ, et al. A 6-month randomized trial of thyroxine treatment in women with mild subclinical hypothyroidism. Am J Med 2002; 112: 348–354.
  • Christ-Crain M, Meier C, Guglielmetti M, et al. Elevated C-reactive protein and homocysteine values: cardiovascular risk factors in hypothyroidism? A cross-sectional and a double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. Atherosclerosis 2003; 166: 379–386.
  • Canturk Z, Cetinarslan B, Tarkun I, et al. Hemostatic system as a risk factor for cardiovascular disease in women with subclinical hypothyroidism. Thyroid 2003; 13: 971–977.
  • Karmisholt J, Andersen S, Laurberg P. Variation in thyroid function in subclinical hypothyroidism: importance of clinical follow-up and therapy. Eur J Endocrinol 2011; 164: 317–323.
  • Ross DS , Cooper DS , Mulder JE. Subclinical hyperthyroidism. Version 19.3. Dostępny:
  • Ruchała M, Szczepanek E. Choroba guzkowa tarczycy. Fam Med Prim Care Rev 2008; 10: 1383–1392.
  • Jastrzębska H, Bednarczuk T, Kochman M. Nadczynność tarczycy. W: Zgliczyński W, red. Wielka Interna. Endokrynologia.Warszawa: Medical Tribune Polska; 2011: 256–279.
  • Wiersinga WM. Should we treat mild subclinical/mild hyperthyroidism? Yes. Eur J Int Med 2011; 22: 324–329.
  • Mercuro G, Panzuto MG, Bina A, et al. Cardiac function, physical exercise capacity, and quality of life during long-term thyrotropin-suppressive therapy with levothyroxine: effect of individual dose tailoring. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 2000; 85: 159–164.
  • Botella-Carretero JI, Galan JM, Caballero C, et al. Quality of life and psychometric functionality in patients with differentiated thyroid carcinoma. Endocr Relat Cancer 2003; 10: 601–610.
  • van Osch LA , Hogervorst E, Combrinck M, et al. Low thyroid-stimulating hormone as an independent risk factor for Alzheimer disease. Neurology 2004; 62: 1967–1971.
  • Kalmijn S, Mehta KM, Pols HA, et al. Subclinical hyperthyroidism and the risk of dementia. The Rottherdam study. Clin Endocrinol (Oxf) 2000; 53: 733–737.
  • van der Cammen TJ, Mattace-Raso F, van Harskamp F. De Jager Lack of association between thyroid disorders and Alzheimer’s disease in older persons: a cross-sectional observational study in a geriatric outpatient population. J Am Geriatr Soc 2003; 51: 884.
  • Grabe HJ, Volzke H, Ludemann J, et al. Mental and physical complaints in thyroid disorders in the general population. Acta Psychiatr Scand 2005; 112: 286–293.
  • Oomen HA, Schipperijn AJ, Drexhage HA. The prevalence of affective disorder and in particular of a rapid cycling of bipolar disorder in patients with abnormal thyroid function tests. Clin Endocrinol (Oxf) 1996; 45: 215–223.
  • Gammage MD, Parle JV, Holder RL , et al. Association between serum free thyroxine concentration and atrial fibrillation. Arch Intern Med 2007; 167: 928–934
  • Botella-Carretero JI, Gomez-Bueno M, Barrios V, et al. Chronic thyrotropin-suppressive therapy with levothyroxine and short term overt hypothyroidism after thyroxine withdrawal are associated with undesirable cardiovascular effects in patients with differentiated thyroid carcinoma. Endocr Relat Cancer 2004; 11: 345–356.
  • Walsh JP, Bremner AP, Bulsara MK, et al. Subclinical thyroid dysfunction and blood pressure: a community-based study. Clin Endocrinol 2006; 65: 486–491.
  • 40. Gullu S, Altuntas F, Dincer I, et al. Effects of TS H-suppressive therapy on cardiac morphology and function: beneficial effects of the addition of b-blockade on diastolic dysfunction. Eur J Endocrinol 2004; 150: 655–661.
  • Erem C. Blood coagulation, fibrinolytic activity and lipid profile in subclinical thyroid disease: subclinical hyperthyroidism increases plasma factor X activity. Clin Endocrinol (Oxf) 2006; 64: 323–329.
  • Sawin CT , Geller A, Wolf PA, et al. Low serum thyrotropin concentrations as a risk factor for atrial fibrillation in older persons.N Engl J Med 1994; 331: 1249–1252.
  • Heemstra KA, Hamdy NA , Romijn JA, et al. The effects of thyrotropin-suppressive therapy on bone metabolism in patients with well-differentiated thyroid carcinoma. Thyroid 2006; 16: 583–591.
  • Uzzan B, Campos J, Cucherat M, et al. Effects on bone mass of long-term treatment with thyroid hormones: a meta-analysis.J Clin Endocrinol Metab 1996; 81: 4278–4289.
  • Bauer DC , Ettinger B, Nevitt MC, et al. Risk for fracture in women with low serum levels of thyroid-stimulating hormone. Ann Intern Med 2001; 134: 561–568.
  • Solomon BL, Wartofsky L, Burman KD. Prevalence of fractures in postmenopausal women with thyroid disease. Thyroid 1993;3: 17–23.
  • Flynn RW , Bonellie SR , Jung RT , et al. Serum thyroid-stimulating hormone concentration and morbidity from cardiovascular disease and fractures in patients on long-term thyroxine therapy. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 2010; 95: 186–193
  • Fazio S, Biondi B, Carella C, et al. Diastolic dysfunction in patients on thyroid-stimulating-hormone suppressive therapy with levothyroxine: beneficial effect of b blockade. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 1995; 80: 2222–2226.
  • Sgarbi JA, Villaca F, Garbeline B, et al. The effects of early antithyroid therapy for endogenous subclinical hyperthyroidism on clinical and heart abnormalities. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 2003; 88: 1672–1677.
  • Mudde AH, Houben AJ, Nieuwenhuijzen Kruseman AC . Bone metabolism during anti-thyroid drug treatment of endogenous subclinical hyperthyroidism. Clin Endocrinol (Oxf) 1994; 41: 421–424.
  • Balm RS , Burch HB, Cooper DS , et al. ATA /AACE Guidelines. Hyperthyroidism and other causes of thyrotoxicosis: management guidelines of the American Thyroid Association and American Association of Clinical Endocrinologists. Endocr Pract 2011; 17: 456–520.
Document Type
Publication order reference
YADDA identifier
JavaScript is turned off in your web browser. Turn it on to take full advantage of this site, then refresh the page.