ТЕОРЕТИЧНІ Й МЕТОДИЧНІ ЗАСАДИ НЕФОРМАЛЬНОЇ ОСВІТИ ДОРОСЛИХ: АМЕРИКАНСЬКИЙ КОНТЕКСТ
Theoretical and methodological principles of non-formal adult education: American context
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The article deals with the theoretical and methodological principles of non-formal adult education in the USA, it examines the evolution of adult education in the American educational literature; the key factors of adult education in the United States are settled, its importance at the present stage of development of society is revealed; the theoretical principles of adult education are justified. It is proved that adult education is the oldest type of education in the United States. It has a long history and a number of opportunities for lifelong learning. Adult education has emerged as non-institutional form of education and has been developing for more than four centuries. The main stages in the development of adult education include: establishment of the first colleges and universities, the establishment of the Republic, implementation of the ideas of Thomas Jefferson about general civic education, the adoption of Morill’s Bill and opening land-grant universities, immigration, organization of distance education programs and summer schools for adults. The most important historical stages are: establishment of the club «Junto» (1727) by Benjamin Franklin, organizing of the first schools, libraries, Chautauqua Institute (1874), adoption of the Constitution, which provided financial support for adult education, the creation of the American Association of Adult Education, first summer sessions of the National Training laboratories and others. Adult education is the oldest type of education in the United States. It has a long history and a number of features. In the late XIX – beginning of the XX century adult education in the United States was considered as additional education, not related to employment; it was an activity specifically organized to teach people whose age and social roles characterize them as adults. Since the middle of the XX century adult education in the American educational environment is characterized as a complex, flexible and multifunctional system, aimed to help people to meet educational needs, to adapt to the changes of socio-economic environment and at the development and improvement of American society. The study has showed that the development of institutional forms of adult education, launching of permanent financial support from the federal government and the adoption of appropriate legislation, the establishment of American Association of Adult Education as a coordinating body for all activities in this sphere at the national level, and with it the isolation of adult education in independent branch, recognition by the state and society of its importance give the reasons to believe that the US system of adult education in general was formed in the first half of the XX century. Education as the most popular social institution has an impact on the formation of the consciousness of society, regulates the processes of self-development of citizens. Adult education is considered as a mechanism for achieving economic development, ensuring civil progress and democratic public life; an expression of social responsibility for the formation of human and social capital, which is a key element of modern society of knowledge.
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