PL EN


2012 | LXXXV (85) | 85-112
Article title

Szkice z zakresu rzymskiego prawa karnego – skazanie do szkoły gladiatorów (damnatio in ludum)

Content
Title variants
EN
Sketches about Roman Criminal Law – damnation to gladiatorial school (damnation in ludum)
Languages of publication
PL
Abstracts
EN
Condemnation to the school of gladiators (damnatio in ludum) was one of the most intriguing penalties in Roman Criminal Law. Condemned were sent to ludus to train gladiatorial skills and fight during the games. Of course, its existence was closely connected with ludus, and thus it appeared in public law in I century b.C., after the gladiatorial schools were widely built (at least from 105 b.C. – Val. Max. 2, 3, 2; Cic. Tusc. 2, 41; Plin. Nat. 33, 16). From I century A.D. on, it was definitely quite common penalty (Plin. Epist. 31; lex Petronia de servis). The most important thing however is, that it was not a death penalty – it deprived condemned of liberty, they became slaves, and also they had to stay in ludus, as in the prison (D. 48, 19, 8, 11; P. S. 5, 17, 2), but they did not have to die during the games. Even more, after three years of service they could be liberated from the penalty, and after another two years – regain their freedom (Coll. 11, 7, 4). As it was a general rule in Roman Criminal Law, slaves and humiliores could be condemned in such a way (D. 48, 19, 8, 12; P. S. 5, 23, 4). Damnatio in ludum was very similar to damnatio ad metallum, so one can draw some conclusion on such comparison. Some authors suggest, that criminals were condemned to ludus in cases of sacrilege, arson, homicide, robbery and desertion (thesis based probably on Quint. Decl. Mai. 9, 21 and Flor. 2, 8, 8), but closer analysis of Roman legal regulations shows, that it was a penalty of lesser crimes or mitigation of punishments (D. 48, 13, 7; P. S. 5, 20, 2 and 5; P. S. 5, 23, 4; D. 49, 16, 3, 1; D. 48, 19, 28, 15). Though from one point of view it was a severe penalty, resulting in death sometimes, in general it may be compared with damnatio ad metallum and other non-lethal penalties. The discipline in ludus might have been cruel and hard, but there was also a chance to survive the time of punishment (according to some even in case of loss during games - missio) and regain freedom, not to mention quite good physical care like attention of doctors or massages. Its close connection with gladiatorial games was also the reason of its disappearance from Roman Criminal Law, as late as the end of IV century A.D. (C. Th. 15, 12, 1; C. Th. 9, 40, 8; C. Th. 15, 12, 3).
Year
Volume
Pages
85-112
Physical description
Dates
published
2012
Contributors
  • Katedra Prawa Rzymskiego, Uniwersytet Łódzki
References
  • Amielańczyk K., Lex Cornelia de sicariis et veneficis. Ustawa Korneliusza Sulli przeciwko nożownikom i trucicielom, Lublin 2011.
  • Amielańczyk K., Poena legis Corneliae, w: Kara śmierci w starożytnym Rzymie, red. H. Kowalski, M. Kuryłowicz, Lublin 1996.
  • Amielańczyk K., Rzymskie prawo karne w reskryptach cesarza Hadriana, Lublin 2006.
  • Amielańczyk K., The Position of Incendium in the Legislature of Cornelius Sulla Lex Cornelia de sicariis et veneficis, OIR 1999/5.
  • Auguet R., Cruelty and Civilization. The Roman Games, London 1972.
  • Baltrusch E., Die Verstaatlichung der Gladiatorenspiele, Hermes 1988/116.
  • Balzarini M., Appunti sulla rixa nell diritto criminale romano, Labeo 1982/28.
  • Barton C. A., The Sorrows of the Ancient Romans. The Gladiator and the Monster, Princeton, New Jersey 1992.
  • Brand C. E., Roman Military Law, Austin 1968.
  • Brasiello U., La repressione penale in diritto romano, Napoli 1937.
  • Brasiello U., Sulla riconstruzione dei crimini in diritto romano cenni sulla evoluzione dell’omicidio, SDHI 1976/42.
  • Burdon J., Slavery as a Punishment in the Roman Criminal Law, [w:] Slavery and Other Forms of Unfree Labour, London, New York 1988.
  • Carcopino J., Życie codzienne w Rzymie w okresie rozkwitu cesarstwa, Warszawa 1960.
  • Costa E., Crimini e pene da Romolo a Giustiniano, Bologna 1921.
  • Dębiński A., Sacrilegium w prawie rzymskim, Lublin 1995.
  • Dębiński A., Sankcje karne za przestępstwo sacrilegium, Biul. Lub. Tow. Nauk. 34, 1993/1.
  • Dydyński T., Słownik łacińsko-polski do źródeł prawa rzymskiego, Warszawa 1883.
  • Falchi G.F., Diritto penale romano (dottrine generali), Padova 1937.
  • Falchi G.F., Diritto penale romano (i singoli reati), Padova 1932.
  • Ferrini C., Diritto penale romano. Esposizione storica e dottrinale, Roma 1902.
  • Futrell A., Blood in the Arena. The Spectacle of Roman Power, Austin 1997.
  • Futrell A., The Roman Games. Historical sources in Translation, Oxford 2006.
  • Grant M., Gladiatorzy, Warszawa 1980.
  • Kreis von Schaewen R., Pilleus, RE, Bd. 20, kl. 1328–1329.
  • Kubiak P., Ograniczanie ius vitae ac necis właścicieli niewolników a kary wykonywane na arenie, w: Ochrona bezpieczeństwa i porządku publicznego w prawie rzymskim, red. K. Amielańczyk, A. Dębiński, D. Słapek, Lublin 2010.
  • Kubiak P., Spartakus a rzymskie prawo karne (w druku).
  • Kubiak P., Spartakus Dictionaire des Antiquiés Grecques et Romaines.
  • Kubiak P., Szkice z zakresu rzymskiego prawa karnego – damnatio ad bestias, SPE 2010/82.
  • Kubiak P., Szkice z zakresu rzymskiego prawa karnego – skazanie na udział w igrzyskach gladiatorskich (damnatio ad gladium ludi), SPE 2011/84.
  • Kuleczka G., Studia nad rzymskim wojskowym prawem karnym, Poznań 1974.
  • Kyle D.G., Spectacles of Death in Ancient Rome, London, New York 1998.
  • Lafaye G., Rudis, [w:] Daremberg-Saglio, vol. VIII.
  • MacCormack G., Criminal Liability for Fire in Early and Classical Roman Law, Index 1972/3.
  • Millar F., Condemnation to Hard Labour in the Roman Empire from the Julio – Claudians to Constantin, PBSR 1984/52.
  • Mommsen T., Römisches Strafrecht, Leipzig 1899.
  • Mossakowski W., Rixa, czyżby starorzymskie chuligaństwo?, [w:] Ochrona bezpieczeństwa i porządku publicznego w prawie rzymskim, red. K. Amielańczyk, A. Dębiński, D. Słapek, Lublin 2010.
  • Nogrady A., Römisches Strafrecht nach Ulpian. Buch 7 bis 9 De officio proconsulis, Berlin, 2006.
  • Paris P., Pilleus, w: Daremberg-Saglio, vol. VII.
  • Pawłowska A., Sposoby wykonania kary śmierci w relacjach Tacyta i Swetoniusza, St. Prawnoustr. 2006/7.
  • Rein W., Das Kriminalrecht der Römer von Romulus bis auf Justinianus, Aalen 1962.
  • Robinson O.F., Fire Prevention at Rome, RIDA 1977/24.
  • Robinson O.F., The Criminal Law of Ancient Rome, Baltimore 1995.
  • Sabbatini Tumolesi P., Gladiatorum paria. Annunci di spettacoli gladiatorii a Pompei, Roma 1980.
  • Séchan L., Saltatio, w: Daremberg-Saglio, vol. VIII.
  • Sitek B., Incendium fecerint... Przyczynek do studiów nad przestępstwem podpalenia w prawie rzymskim, cz. I, [w:] Salus rei publicae suprema lex. Ochrona interesów państwa w prawie karnym starożytnej Grecji i Rzymu, red. A. Dębiński, H. Kowalski, M. Kuryłowicz, Lublin 2007.
  • Słapek D., Przestępcy na arenach w republice rzymskiej, F. Soc. Scien. Lub., 1993/34.
  • Słapek D., Sport i widowiska w świecie antycznym. Kompendium, Kraków, Warszawa 2010.
  • Sondel J., Słownik łacińsko-polski dla prawników i historyków, Kraków 2001.
  • Ville G., La gladiature en occident des origines à la mort de Domitien, Rome 1981.
  • Ville G., La guerre et le munus, w: Problémes de la guerre à Rome, Paris 1969.
  • Wiedemann T., Emperors and Gladiators, London 1992.
Document Type
Publication order reference
Identifiers
ISSN
0081-6841
YADDA identifier
bwmeta1.element.desklight-f34d72a2-069d-4542-8eb0-eafa190fedd1
JavaScript is turned off in your web browser. Turn it on to take full advantage of this site, then refresh the page.