THE INFLUENCE OF PROPRIETORIAL CHANGES IN PUBLIC SECTOR OF AGRICULTURE ON AGRARIAN STRUCTURE IN POLAND
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The article presents the changes in the structure of Polish agriculture in years 1990-2012, which was largely affected by the transformation process currently carried out by the Agricultural Property Agency (APA) (Agencja Nieruchomosci Rolnych (ANR)) - the legal successor of the Agricultural Property Agency of the State Treasury (APAST) (Agencji Wlasnoci Rolnej Skarbu Panstwa (AWRSP)). It was given full ownership rights of agricultural property of the State Treasury. In the analysis there were used data from the APAST (AWRSP) activity reports and the statistical data of the Central Statistical Office (CSO). The aim of this research was to assess the influence of proprietorial changes in governmental sector of agriculture on changes of agrarian structure in Poland. By the end of 2012 more than 4.74 million ha had been taken over by the Agricultural Property Stock of the State Treasury (Zasob Wlasnoci Rolnej Skarbu Panstwa), of which over 80% came from state farms. Overall 3.01 million hectares (63.5%) were permanently brought into cultivation, of which 2.34 million hectares through sale offers, which consisted of 49.3% taken over by the Agricultural Property Stock of the State Treasury (Zasob Wlasnoci Rolnej Skarbu Panstwa). There still remains more than 1.8 million hectares to be dispensed, of which the majority of the land (73.2%) is being leased. For distribution still remains available 6.8% of Agricultural Property Stock Resources. In Poland there has occurred historically shaped territorial variation of the agrarian structure, which was manifested by high demand for land in regions with low supply of land from the post-state-owned farms. The results of proprietorial changes influenced the changes in the agrarian structure, which reflects in a reduction of approximately 1/3 of the number of individual farms to the amount of more than 1456.4 thousand and increasing average farm size to 9.3 hectares of agricultural land (AL), i.e. 47.6%. The number of farms was reduced in all area groups except for the area of farms with over 15 hectares of agricultural land. In this group the changes took place mainly on the basis of formation of large farms through repurchase or being leased by different entities. The level and dynamics of structural change in the area of agriculture is mainly conditioned by the state policy reflected in its formal and legal regulations and economic conditions affecting the profitability of agricultural production. The results of analysis of those changes indicate that process of “Territorial Farms Polarization” will be continued by increasing the area of the large farms with greater potential to increase.
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