ПІДГОТОВКА ВІЙСЬКОВИХ ФАХІВЦІВ ЧЕРВОНОЇ АРМІЇ УСРР В РОКИ ГРОМАДЯНСЬКОЇ ВІЙНИ, ЯК ГОЛОВНА ПЕРЕДУМОВА ДО СТВОРЕННЯ СИСТЕМИ ВІЙСЬКОВОЇ ОСВІТИ В УКРАЇНІ У 20-Х РР. ХХ СТОРІЧЧЯ
Training of military specialists of the USSR Red Army during the Civil War, as a major prerequisite for the the system of military education establishment in Ukraine in the 20s of the XXth century
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The article shows the elements of the military specialists’ training system formation for the Workers’ and Peasants’ Red Army on the territory of Ukraine in 20s of the 20th century. The article depicts the process of establishment and development of military education in Ukraine during the Civil War (1919–1921). The content of the professional education was learned. Accordingly the syllabus, terms of studying, selection of military specialists for the Ukrainian Soviet Socialist Republic Red Army, recruiting and work of military educational institutions were analyzed. It was reflected a process of “Ukrainization” in military educational institutions of the given period. It was identified the factors and prerequisites for establishing a system of military education in Ukraine in the 20s of the XXth century. The Soviet education system was formed in very difficult conditions on the territory of Ukraine during the Civil War and it didn’t have unitary structure and unified syllabus. Its positive trait was availability which was based on the absence of class restrictions for entry. The main achievement of the educational system was the balanced joining of educational and training components in the learning process. That system of military education also had drawbacks that are presented in the article. They were the following: teachers’ and students’ political qualifications, low level of knowledge and insufficient training of graduates, short training period, small amount of syllabi and sometimes even anti-Ukrainian incline. The archival documents of the Central state archives of the superior authorities and governance, the Central state archives of social associations of Ukraine, research works, monographs and articles of Ukrainian, Russian and Soviet scientists were used for the article. Due to these, there were analyzed the historic experience of the system formation of the military educational institutions on the territory of Ukraine during the continuing war and also achievements and errors of the Soviet military education formation of the studied period. Further detailed and comprehensive study has important scientific significance: clarifying the factors and preconditions of formation and development of the system of training of military specialists to the red army in the 1920s, confirms the identity of Ukrainian military and educational traditions, contributes to the comprehensive study of the history of military education in Ukraine, refutes old stereotypes, taking place in historical science in the assessments of this problem.
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