ВИСВІТЛЕННЯ ДОСВІДУ ОРГАНІЗАЦІЇ ЛЕКЦІЇ У ВНЗ СХІДНОУКРАЇНСЬКОГО РЕГІОНУ В ПЕДАГОГІЧНІЙ ІСТОРІОГРАФІЇ (50–60-ті рр. ХХ ст.)
Illumination of the experience of giving lecture at East Ukrainian region universities in pedagodical historiography (50–60thof the XXthcentury)
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This paper deals with the historiography of the experience of higher education institutions in the Eastern region of Ukraine in the 50-60th of the last century, when higher education in the country became a mass phenomenon. Special attention is paid to the researching of scientific works which clarify the characteristics of the use of such form and method of the teaching process as alecture. The article determines the maincharacteristics, advantages and disadvantages of the lectures, which have been identified by the researchers in this period and region. It is cleared up that a lecture was the main form of teaching in the period which we research. According to the research lectures of that period had a number of characteristics, such as: 1) they holistically and logically covered the basic provisions of the course; 2) they armed students with study of a particular methodology of science; 3) they were better and more complete than other forms of training, compensated obsolescence or lack of modern textbooks and manuals; 4) they were the most operational in giving the latest data of science; 5) they combined organically teaching and education; 6) they targeted students for independent work and defined its main directions. Besides the article shows that this form of teaching had the following advantages: the most economical way of teaching; the most effective way for students to learn; one of the most effective means of shaping the worldview and beliefs; one of the most effective means of direct personal influence of a lecturer for a large audience at the same time. However the author has managed to discover that lectures of that period had some disadvantages. They are the following: 1) the lectures could not depart from the general basic works, textbooks, axioms and truths; 2) they provided only minimal feedback of lecturer and students; 3) they made an impact on particular student the weaker, the more numerous audience was present in a lecture halls. Among other shortcomings of lectures that we have noticed was politicization of lecture materials. Whileresearchingtheproblemthe author has found out that in Soviet higher educational institutions organization of educational process was clearly regulated by documents of the Ministry of Higher Education of the USSR, so differences between lectures, which at that time were almost the only source of knowledge, were only in the level of teacher’s teaching skills. It is worth noticing that in the period which the paper studies higher educational institutions of East Ukrainian region during the educational process, on the one hand, the emphasis was placed on the intellectual development of future professionals, on the other hand – some teachers continued to use such methods of giving lectures, which were mandatory and were focused only on the transmission of information (especially in the 50’s).
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