Jaký je původ dlouhých fléten 3+0 a 3+0+2 v depozitářích moravských muzeí?
What is the origin of long flutes ordered as 3+0 and 3+0+2 in depositories of Moravian museums?
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The usage of long flutes with three to five holes ordered as 3+0, 3+0+2 or 5+0 is evidenced in an area going from Moravia, through northern and eastern Slovakia, southern Poland and Hungary to Romania and Moldova. Other similar instruments can also be found in Arabian, Persian and Turkish traditional music and in the Uralo-Altaic region. In north-western Carpathians the tradition of playing and making these instruments has completely disappeared, or it has been replaced by a possible successor of these instruments – the Central-Slovakian fujara. A research recently executed in museum depositories and private collections in the Moravian-Slovakian borderland caused several questions. Based on the analogy, the common origin of long flutes with three finger holes (3+0) is assumed to be in bass versions of so called tabor pipes (Trommelpfeife). Together with a one handed drum, these instruments created a typical entertainment instrumental group in the late Middle Ages. However, very similar instruments with five finger holes of the 5+0 type can be found in Romania under the name caval, and in Hungary under the name hosszú furulya. If these instruments are related to the Eastern-Moravian variants, the so called tuning holes can be rudiments of the earlier finger holes, and such long flutes an unknown evolutional step of the Central-Slovakian fujara.
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