Reklama w procesie budowania lojalności konsumenta: ujęcie modelowe
Advertising in the process of building consumer loyalty: a model approach
Languages of publication
the aim of the article is to develop a new conceptual framework for examining the role of advertising in forming consumer attitudes. The author assumes that consumer attitudes mediate the process of making the decision to purchase a product. Existing advertising models are not sufficient for understanding the impact of advertising on a consumer. The identification of factors mediating in this interaction, such as the level of commitment to purchase (High-Mid-Low), the motive of purchase (cognitive-emotional) allow for the identification of at least nine different advertising strategies. The author presents her own concept of how advertising builds interest in the product mediating conceptual approach to the creation of the product, possibly contributing to the experience of the test (e.g. test drive car) and, consequently inducing the purchasing decision. It also shows that, depending on the product category, an ad after purchase (and experience with the product) reinforces the sense of fairness and the selection of the product and/or reminds of the existence of the brand on the market. The informative advertising (1) is for products that generate a high level of risk purchasing: such as white goods (refrigerators, washing machines and dishwashers), expensive electronic appliances (microwave ovens) and financial services (loans, mortgages, investment policies). Advertising should first of all make a demonstration of the basic features of the product. In case of advertising reducing the risk of purchasing (2), referring to such products as cars and some financial services, advertising will be primarily urged to trial experience or argued that the purchasing process is easy, simple and enjoyable. Advertising reducing emotional distortion (3) will highlight the fact that the purchase of a luxury version of the product (eg. clothing or cosmetics) offers greater guarantees to meet the needs (in line with the higher price − higher quality). At the same time advertising should emphasize the emotional reasons to purchase. It is different in case of the ad reducing information overload (4), where brand appeal should be built either by brand awareness (due to increased exposure) or by highlighting the specific attributes of this brand. Advertising building repeated behavior (5), relies primarily on the rational benefits, but providing specific knowledge about these products is not necessary in this case. In advertising building the routine behavior (6), and referring to such products as water, food, everyday use cosmetics, emotional charge quality, health, as well as a striking impression emotional arguments, such as shiny hair are more important. In case of advertising building the impulse behavior (7), it is vital to pay attention to the information about the possible immediate satisfaction from the use of the product. In an ad building the membership of the group (8), we find such products as coffee, soft drinks and beer. You need to highlight the fact
- Böhner G., Wänke M., Postawy i zmiana postaw, GWP, Gdańsk 2004.
- Colley R.H., Defining Advertising Goals for Measured Advertising Results, Association of National Advertisers, New York 1961.
- Cunningham R.M., Brand loyalty: where, what, how much?, “Harvard Business Review”, January-February 1966.
- Dick A.L., Basu K., Customer loyalty: toward an integrated conceptual framework, “Journal of the Academy of Marketing Science” 1984, vol. 22, no. 2.
- Ehrenberg A.S.C., Repetitive advertising and the consumer, “Journal of Advertising Research” 1974, no. 14 (April).
- Grzegorczyk A., Mapy recepcji reklamy, PWE, Warszawa 2013.
- Howard J.A., Consumer Behavior: Application of Theory, McGraw-Hill New York 1977.
- Kahn B.E., Kalwani M.U., Morrison D.G., Measuring variety seeking of reinforcement behaviors using panel data, “Journal of Marketing Research” 1986, no. 23 (May).
- Kozłowska A., FCB: weryfikacja założeń modelu oddziaływania reklamowego, „Marketing i Rynek” 2013, nr 4.
- Kozłowska A., Reklama. Techniki perswazyjne, OW SGH, Warszawa 2011a.
- Kozłowska A., Zastosowanie modelu ELM w reklamie prasowej – raport badawczy, WSP, Warszawa 2011b, http://wsp.pl/file/619_239804651.pdf.
- Krugman H., The impact of television advertising: learning without involvement, ”Public Opinion Quarterly” 1965, no. 29 (Fall).
- Massey W.F., Montgomery D.B., Morrison D.G., Stochastic Models of Buyer Behavior, MIT Press, Cambridge 1970.
- McGuire J., Some internal psychological factors influencing consumer choice, “Journal of Consumer Research” 1976, no. 2.
- Mika S., Psychologia społeczna, PWN, Warszawa 1987.
- Percy L., The role of emotion in processing low involvement advertising, ”E-European Advances in Consumer Research” 2001, vol. 5.
- Ratchford B.T., New insights about the FCB grid, “Journal of Advertising Research” 1987, vol. 27, no. 4.
- Ray M.L., Sawyer A.G., Rothschild M.L., Heeler R.M., Strong E.C., Reed J.B., Marketing Communication and the Hierarchy-of-Effects, [in:] P. Clarke (ed.) New Models for Mass Communication Research, Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage 1973.
- Reed P.R., Ewing M., How advertising works: alternative situational and attitudinal explanations, “Marketing Theory” 2004, vol. 4(1/2).
- Rossiter J.R., Percy L., Donovan R.J., The advertising plan and advertising communication models, “Australian Marketing Researcher” 1984, vol. 8, no. 2.
- Strong E.K., Jr., Theories of selling, “Journal of Applied Psychology” 1925, no. 9 (February).
- Vakratsas D.S., Ambler T., How advertising works: what do we really know?, “Journal of Marketing”, vol. 63, no. 1, January 1999.
- Vaughn R., How advertising works: a planning model revisited, “Journal of Advertising Research” 1986, no. 26.
- Vaughn R., How advertising works: a planning model, “Journal of Advertising Research” 1980, no. 20(5).
- Wiśniewska A., Podejmowanie decyzji, [w:] M. Kugiel (red.), Zarządzanie, WSP, Warszawa 2010.
- Woźniczka J., Efekty reklamy w systemie komunikacji marketingowej, Uniwersytet Ekonomiczny we Wrocławiu, Wrocław 2009.
Publication order reference