Międzynarodowe kształcenie specjalistów w zakresie konserwacji
INTERNATIONAL TRAINING OF SPECIALISTS IN THE FIELD OF CONSERVATION
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In his article the author deals with problem of in te rnational training of specialists in th e field of conservation making a particular stress on activities of the International Centre of Studies for preservation and conservation of Cultural Property having its residence in Rome. A note has been given within introductory part of article stating th a t conservation of every kind is abpve the all a critical treatment and both historic and artistic criticism are as universal as universal is the importance of a work of a rt as a document of culture and history. The modern education of a conservator, in addition to work aimed at developing his critical conscience, forces him to acquire a wide range of knowledge and to master a number of ever more complicated methods. It follows from the above that requ'rements put forward nowadays to conservators may be fulfilled by education in te rnational as to its character which the fact by no means reduces the importance of knowledge of local artistic traditions in particular cpuntries. Thus, in a deepened education of a conservator may be distinguished the following three stages: (a) acquisition of knowledge of conservation problems and critical adoption of conservation methodology existing in a given country, representing a ’’national” factor, (b) international training based on a comparison of various foreign doctrines and methodologies and the exchange of views with representatives of other milieux, representing a factor of ’’the universal conservator conscience”, (c) dialectical synthesis of national education with experiences gained from inte rnational training or, in other words, the adaptation of the la tte r to actual situation existing in the conservator’s country. The 1‘mitations of international training being re se rved for candidates selected by national or regional institutions give it character ,of staff preparation for further education under conditions characteristic of their native country. The firs t achievements ûn in te rnational training of conservators are t,o be owed to the initiative undertaken by UNESCO and leading in its final result to creatipn of the International Centre in Rome and also of regional centres. In his furthe r considerations the author gives general characteristics of activities ca rried by the Centre in Rome which are based on co-operation with Italian in s t itu o n s as, for example, Istituto Centrale del Restauro or Istituto di Patologia del Libro. In addition, a detailed account has been given by him on the Centre’s activities in the three main lines, i.e. conservation of monuments and sites, conservation of mural paintings and other forms of training. The curricula and the course of studies and practices in particular lines are dealt with by the author, who, discussing the training in the range of conservation of monuments and sites has laid special accent upon importance of links existing between individual objects and urban complexes or environments, and while considering the training in the range of conservation of mural paintings stressed the importance of preserving the object in those particular conditions for which it was once designed, thus making its transfer tolerable only in a case of an extreme need. No less important seems to be to the authpr the co-operation of specialists representing different ranges in view of an inter-disciplinary nature of the modern a rt of conservation. Comparing the attempts made in battle fought to save the cultural heritage to th a t against the contamination of natura l environment the authpr expresses opinion th a t this struggle, if to be fought in te rnationally, requires the international training of specialists which in turn needs to deepen their training at national level. Finally, the need and importance of actually gr,owing regional centres has been pointed out by the author who advances a view th a t the worldwide importance of the International Centre in Rome will enable it to contribute considerably to education of the future teachers for national centres.
przełożył: dr Zdzisław Bieniecki
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