A CROSS-CULTURAL STUDY ON THE ATTITUDES OF ENGLISH LANGUAGE STUDENTS TOWARDS COMPUTER-ASSISTED LANGUAGE LEARNING
Languages of publication
The purpose of this study was to compare the attitude of Iranian and non-Iranian English language students’ attitudes towards Computer-Assisted Language Learning (CALL). Furthermore, the relations of gender, education level, and age to their attitude are investigated. A convergent mixed methods design was used for analyzing both quantitative and qualitative data. In the data collection procedure, an online 44-item web-based questionnaire was applied in order to collect data from 415 students. In the data analysis phase, both descriptive and non-parametric analyses were performed. The findings of the study revealed that there is no difference between the attitudes of Iranian and non-Iranian towards CALL. Finally, pedagogical implications and recommendations for further research are presented.
- AbuSeileek, A. F. & Abu Sa’aleek, A. O. (2012). Computer assisted language learning: Merits and demerits. Language in India, 12(4), 23-36.
- Almahboub, S. F. (2000). Attitudes toward Computer Use and Gender Differences among Kuwaiti Sixth-Grade Students. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, University of North Texas, Denton.
- Barson, J. & Debski, R. (1996). Calling back CALL: technology in the service of foreign language learning based on creativity, contingency, and goal-oriented activity. In M. Warschauer (Ed.), Telecollaboration in Foreign Language Learning (pp. 49-68). Honolulu: University of Hawaii, Second Language Teaching and Curriculum Center.
- Baylor, A. L. & Ritchie, D. (2002). What factors facilitate teacher skill, teacher morale, and perceived student learning in technology-using classrooms? Computers and Education, 39, 395-414.
- Belz, J. A. (2002). Social dimensions of telecollaborative foreign language study. Language Learning & Technology, 6(1), 60-81. Retrieved September 24, 2003, from http://www.lltjournal.org/collection/col_10125_35883
- Belz, J. A. & Thorne, S. L. (2006). Internet-Mediated Intercultural Foreign Language Education. Boston: Thomson Heinle.
- Breckler, S. J. (1984). Empirical validation of affect, behavior, and cognition as distinct components of attitude. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 47, 1191-1205.
- Breckler, S. J. & Berman, J. S. (1991). Affective responses to attitude objects: Measurement and validation. Journal of Social Behavior and Personality, 6, 529-544.
- Breckler, S. J. & Wiggins, E. C. (1989). Affect versus evaluation in the structure of attitudes. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 25, 253-271.
- Breckler, S. J. & Wiggins, E. C. (1991). Cognitive responses in persuasion: Affective and evaluative determinants. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 27, 180-200.
- Cabrini Simões, L. (2007). An overview on the use of new technologies in English language teaching. Acta Scientiarum. Human and Social Sciences, 29(1), 31-34.
- Chapelle, C. A. (2001). Computer Applications in Second Language Acquisition: Foundations for Teaching, Testing, and Research. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
- Chapelle, C. A. (2003). English Language Learning and Technology. Amsterdam: John Benjamins.
- Chapelle, C. A. (2008). Computer Assisted Language Learning. In B. Spolsky & F. M. Hult (Eds.), The Handbook of Educational Linguistics (pp. 585-595). Oxford: Blackwell Publishing Ltd.
- Chapelle, C. & Jamieson, J. (1986). Computer-Assisted Language Learning as a predictor of success in acquiring English as a second language. TESOL Quarterly, 20, 27-41.
- Chen, X.-B. (2013). Tablets for informal language learning: Student usage and attitudes. Language Learning & Technology, 17(1), 20-36.
- Chirimbu, C. S. & Tafazoli, D. (2013). Technology & media: Applications in language classrooms (TEFL, TESL & TEOL). Professional Communication & Translation Studies, 6(1/2), 187-194.
- Corrêa, D. M. (2001). New technologies in teaching and learning English. In M. B. M. Fortkamp & R. P. Xavier (Eds.), EFL Teaching and Learning in Brazil: Theory and Practice (pp. 211-222). Florianópolis: Insular.
- Creswell, J. W. & Plano Clark, V. L. (2011). Designing and Conducting Mixed Methods Research (2nd ed.). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.
- Davis, F. (1993). User acceptance of information technology: System characteristics, user perceptions and behavioral impacts. International Journal of Man-Machine Studies, 38, 475–487.
- Department of Education and Early Childhood Development (DEECD). (2010). Teaching and learning with Web 2.0 technologies. State of Victoria. Retrieved from http://www.education.vic.gov.au/edulibrary/public/teachlearn/innovation/technology/web2report.pdf
- Donato, R., Antonek, J. & Tucker, G. R. (1994). A multiple perspective analysis of a Japanese FLES program. Foreign Language Annals, 27, 365-377.
- Donato, R., Antonek, J. & Tucker, G. R. (1996). Monitoring and assessing a Japanese FLES program: Ambiance and achievement. Language Learning, 46, 497-528.
- Doughty, C. J. & Long, M. H. (2003). Optimal psycholinguistic environments for distance foreign language learning. Language Learning & Technology, 7(3), 50-80.
- Dudeney, G., Hockly, N. & Pegrum, M. (2013). Digital Literacies. London: Pearson Education.
- Eagly, A. H. & Chaiken, S. (1998). Attitude, Structure and Function. In D. T. Gilbert, T. S. Fisk, & G. Lindsey (Eds.), Handbook of Social Psychology (pp. 269–322). New York: McGowan-Hill.
- Fang, X. & Warschauer, M. (2004). Technology and curricular reform in China: A case study. TESOL Quarterly, 38(2), 301-321.
- Field, A. (2005). Discovering Statistics Using SPSS (2nd ed.). London: SAGE.
- Fishbein, M. & Ajzen, I. (1975). Belief, Attitude, Intention, and Behavior: An Introduction in Theory and Research. Reading, MA: Addison-Wesley.
- Gillespie, H. (2006). Unlocking Learning and Teaching with ICT: Identifying and Overcoming Barriers. London: David Fulton.
- Godwin-Jones, R. (2006). Tag clouds in the blogosphere: Electronic literacy and social networking. Language Learning & Technology, 10(2), 8-15.
- Hall, I. & Higgins, S. (2005). Primary school students’ perception of interactive whiteboards. Journal of Computer Assisted Language Learning, 21(2), 102-117.
- Han, W. (2008). Benefits and barriers of computer assisted language learning and teaching. US-China Foreign Language, 6(9), 40-43.
- Hope, G. R., Taylor, H. F. & Pusack, J. P. (1984). Using Computers in Teaching Foreign Languages. New York: Harcourt Brace Jovanovich.
- Ismail, A. & Almekhlafi, A. G. (2010). Teachers’ perceptions of the use of technology in teaching languages in United Arab Emirates’ schools. International Journal for Research in Education, 27, 37-56.
- Jacobsen, D. M. & Lock, J. V. (2005). Technology and teacher education for a knowledge era: Mentoring for student futures, not our past. Journal of Technology and Teacher Education, 12(1), 75-87.
- Kaiser, H. F. & Rice. J. (1974). Little jiffy, mark iv. Educational and Psychological Measurement, 34(1), 111–117.
- Kiesler, C. A., Collins, B. E. & Miller, N. (1969). Attitude Change: A Critical Analysis of Theoretical Approaches. New York: John Wiley & Sons.
- Lacina, J. (2004). Promoting language acquisitions: Technology and English language learners. Childhood Education, 81, 113-115.
- Lee, K.-W. (2000). English teacher’s barrier to the use of computer-assisted language learning. The Internet TESL Journal, VI (12). Retrieved from http://iteslj.org/Articles/Lee-CALLbarriers.html
- Levy, M. (1997). CALL: Context and Conceptualization. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
- Liaw, S. S. (2002). An Internet survey for perceptions of computers, and the World Wide Web: Relationship, prediction, and difference. Computers in Human Behavior, 18(1), 17–35.
- Loyd, B. H. & Gressard, C. (1984). The effects of sex, age, and computer experience on computer attitudes. AEDS Journal, 18, 67-77.
- Mantle-Bromley, C. (1995). Positive attitudes and realistic beliefs: Links to proficiency. The Modern Language Journal, 79, 371-386.
- Mantle-Bromley, C. & Miller, R. B. (1991). Effect of multicultural lessons on attitudes of students of Spanish. The Modern Language Journal, 75, 418-425.
- Matsumoto, D. & Yoo, S.H. (2006). Toward a new generation of cross-cultural research. Perspectives on Psychological Science,1(3), 234-250.
- Maushak, N. & Simonson, N. (2001). Instructional technology and attitude change. In D.H. Jonassen (Ed.), Handbook of Research for Educational Communications and Technology (pp. 327-374). Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.
- McGrail, E. (2005). Teachers, technology, and change: English teachers' perspectives. Journal of Technology and Teacher Education, 13(1), 5-14.
- Murphy, C. (2006). The impact of ICT on primary science. In P. Warwick, E. Wilson & M. Winterbottom (Eds.), Teaching and Learning Primary Science with ICT (pp. 13-32). Berkshire, England: Open University Press.
- Murray, L. & Hourigan, T. (2007). Blog writing integration for academic language learning purposes: towards an assessment framework. Iberica, 14, 9-32. Retrieved from http://www.aelfe.org/documents/14-02_murray.pdf.
- O’Dowd, R. (2003). Understanding the ''other side": Intercultural learning in a Spanish-English e-mail exchange. Language Learning & Technology, 7(2), 118-144. Retrieved August 26, 2003, from http://llt.msu.edu/vol7num2/odowd.
- Plana, M. G. & Ballester, E. P. (2009). Beyond technology in computer assisted language learning: Learners’ experiences. English Language Teaching, 2(4), 3-12.
- Prensky, M. (2007). Digital Game Based Learning. St. Paul, MN: Paragon House.
- Reinking, D. (1994). Electronic literacy. Retrieved online from http://curry.edschool.virginia.edu/go/clic/nrrc/reinking.html
- Riasati, M. J., Allahyar, N. & Tan, K.-E. (2012). Technology in language education: Benefits and barriers. Journal of Education and Practice, 3(5), 25-30.
- Saeedi, Z. (2013). Care with CALL. In D. Tafazoli & S. C. Chirimbu (Eds.), Language & Technology: Computer Assisted Language Learning (pp. 40-47). Tehran, Iran: Khate Sefid Press.
- Saettler, P. (1990). The Evolution of American Educational Technology. Englewood, CO: Libraries Unlimited.
- Salaberry, M. R. (2001). The use of technology for second language learning and teaching: A retrospective. The Modern Language Journal, 85 (1), 39-56.
- Shyamlee, S. D. & Phil, M. (2012). Use of technology in English language teaching and learning: An analysis. Proceedings of the International Conference on Language, Medias and Culture, Singapore, 150-156.
- Singhal, M. (1997). The internet and foreign language education: Benefits and challenges. The Internet TESL Journal, III (6). Retrieved from http://iteslj.org/Articles/Singhal-Internet.html
- Son, J.-B. (2004). Teacher development in e-learning environments. In J.-B. Son (Ed.), Computer-Assisted Language Learning: Concepts, Contexts and Practices (pp. 107-122). Lincoln, NE: iUniverse.
- Son, J.-B., Robb, T. & Charismiadji, I. (2011). Computer literacy and competency: A survey of Indonesian teachers of English as a foreign language. CALL-EJ, 12(1), 26-42.
- Song, Y. & Fox, R. (2008) Uses of the PDA for undergraduate students’ incidental vocabulary learning of English. ReCALL, 20(3), 290-314.
- Stigler, J. & Hiebert, J. (1999). The Teaching Gap. NY, New York: The Free Press.
- Tafazoli, D., Gómez Parra, M. E. & Huertas Abril, C. A. (2017). Computer literacy: Sine qua non for digital age of language teaching & learning. Theory and Practice in Language Studies, 7(9), 716-722.
- Warschauer, M. (1996). Computer-assisted language learning: An introduction. In S. Fotos (Ed.), Multimedia Language Teaching (pp. 3-20). Tokyo: Logos International.
- Warschauer, M. (2000). CALL for the 21st Century. Presented paper at the IATEFL and ESADE Conference, July 2000, Barcelona, Spain.
- Warschauer, M. & Healey, D. (1998). Computers and language learning: An overview. Language Teaching, 31(1), 57-71.
- Warschauer, M., Knoebel, M. & Stone, L. (2004). Technology and equity in schooling: Deconstructing the digital divide. Educational Policy, 18, 562-588.
- Warschauer, M., Shetzer, H. & Meloni, C. (2000). Internet for English Teaching. Alexandria, VA: TESOL Publications.
- Warschauer, M. & Whittaker, P. F. (1997). The Internet for English Teaching: Guidelines for Teachers. The Internet TESL Journal, 3(10). Retrieved from http://iteslj.org/Articles/Warschauer-Internet.html.
- Wenden, A. (1998). Learner Strategies for Learner Autonomy. New York: Prentice Hall.
- Wood, W. (2000). Attitude change: Persuasion and social influence. Annual Review of Psychology, 51, 539-570.
- Zimbardo, P. & Leippe, M. (1991). The Psychology of Attitude Change and Social Influence. Philadelphia, PA: Temple University Press.
Publication order reference